SCRAPIE USA

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Location: BACLIFF, Texas, United States

My mother was murdered by what I call corporate and political homicide i.e. FOR PROFIT! she died from a rare phenotype of CJD i.e. the Heidenhain Variant of Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease i.e. sporadic, simply meaning from unknown route and source. I have simply been trying to validate her death DOD 12/14/97 with the truth. There is a route, and there is a source. There are many here in the USA. WE must make CJD and all human TSE, of all age groups 'reportable' Nationally and Internationally, with a written CJD questionnaire asking real questions pertaining to route and source of this agent. Friendly fire has the potential to play a huge role in the continued transmission of this agent via the medical, dental, and surgical arena. We must not flounder any longer. ...TSS

Thursday, December 13, 2012

Eradication Program: Animal Identification and Recordkeeping Guide for Sheep and Goats Veterinary Services December 2012

Veterinary Services December 2012


National Scrapie


Eradication Program: Animal Identification and Recordkeeping Guide for Sheep and Goats


Scrapie is a fatal, degenerative disease affecting the central nervous system of sheep and goats. There is no cure or treatment for scrapie.


The National Scrapie Eradication Program, coordinated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), has reduced the prevalence of scrapie by over 85 percent. To find and eliminate the last few cases in the United States, the cooperation of sheep and goat producers throughout the country is needed.


Producers are required to follow Federal and State regulations for officially identifying their sheep and goats. Producers must also keep herd records showing what new animals were added and what animals left the herd/flock. This guide is intended to help producers follow the regulations.


APHIS provides official plastic or metal eartags free of charge to producers. Producers may request free tags by calling 866-USDA-TAG (873-2824). In addition, producers may purchase tags directly from approved manufacturers to fit their needs. See the “Approved Tag Manufacturers” section below for more information.


Animals Requiring Identification


The following animals* are required by Federal and/or State regulations to be identified as part of the National Scrapie Eradication Program when they move in interstate commerce or ownership changes: Sheep


• All sheep, EXCEPT


o Sheep under 18 months of age in slaughter channels


o Castrated sheep under 18 months of age Goats


• All goats, EXCEPT


o Low-risk commercial goats** exempted by the State in which they reside


o Goats in slaughter channels


o Castrated goats


*For additional details on exemptions to the Federal sheep and goat identification requirements, review the regulations available at http://www.aphis.usda.gov/ animal_health/animal_diseases/scrapie.


**The definition of a low-risk commercial goat is: a goat that is raised for fiber and/or meat; is not registered or exhibited; has not been exposed to sheep; is not scrapie-positive, scrapie-exposed, or high-risk for scrapie; is not from a scrapie-infected or source herd; and does not reside in California, Colorado, Illinois, or Michigan.


In addition, intrastate sheep and goat identification requirements vary from State to State. Some States require additional animals to be officially identified, while other States exempt certain animals while in intrastate commerce. For the most current information on each State’s identification and movement requirements, visit www.eradicatescrapie.org.


Official Identification


Official identification devices, including eartags and injectable transponders, must be approved by APHIS as being sufficiently tamper-resistant for the intended use and provide a unique identification number for each animal.


An owner may substitute tattooing for an official identification device under certain criteria, which are explained in the “Tattooing” section below.


Obtaining Official Tags


To request free tags or ask questions, call 1-866-USDA-TAG (873-2824). For registered herds, please provide the herd’s registration prefix and ask that it be used as your scrapie flock/herd identification number, along with your postal abbreviation. Tags may also be purchased directly from approved tag manufacturers. See below for additional information.


All official National Scrapie Eradication Program identification tags have the U.S. shield printed on them.


Tips for Tagging


• Sheep and goats only need to be officially identified when leaving the premises or when being sold to another owner.


• Do not buy animals of any age that may be used for breeding or animals over 18 months of age for any purpose unless they have official identification applied.


• If you are selling or buying breeding animals, they need to be officially identified prior to or at the time of sale.


Official tags may not be sold or given to another person. If you no longer need the tags, they should be destroyed or returned to APHIS’ Veterinary Services area office for your State.


Approved Tag Manufacturers


APHIS has approved several companies to manufacture and sell official devices, including tags and injectable transponders. Producers should consider the different devices available—including radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, RFID implants, metal tags, or plastic tags—and choose what works best for them. To learn more about a company’s devices, please contact the company directly using the information below:


AllFlex USA – www.allflexusa.com 2805 East 12th Street, P.O. Box 612266 Dallas Fort Worth Airport, TX 75261-2266 Company Representative: Kristi Carrell Telephone: (972) 456-3686 Fax: (972) 456-3382 Email: kcarrell@allflexusa.com (Produces RFID tags and plastic Scrapie Flock Certification Program tags)


EZid, LLC – www.EZidAvid.com 4412 West 4th Street Road Greeley, CO 80635 Company Representative: Elsie McCoy Telephone: (970) 351-7701 or (877) 330-3943 Email: sales@EZidAvid.com (Produces RFID Avid Microchip transponder implants)


Hasco Tag Company – www.hascotag.com 1101 2nd Avenue Dayton, KY 41074-0130 Company Representatives: Tom Hass, Linda Girkin, and Cheri Willis Telephone: (859) 261-6000 Fax: (859) 261-6002 Email: hasco_tags@fuse.net (Produces metal tags only)


National Band and Tag Company – www.nationalband.com 721 York Street, P.O. Box 72430 Newport, KY 41072-0430 Company Representative: Kevin Haas Telephone: (859) 261-2035 Fax: (800) 261-8247 Email: tags@nationalband.com (Produces regular and Scrapie Flock Certification Program RFID tags only)


Premier Sheep Supplies – www.premier1supplies.com 2031 300th Street Washington, IA 52353 Company Representative: Stephanie Sexton Telephone: (800) 282-6631 Fax: (800) 346-7992 Email: ssexton@premier1supplies.com (Produces regular and Scrapie Flock Certification Program plastic tags)


Tattooing Registered animals may be identified with a registration tattoo instead of a tag, as long as the animal is accompanied by a copy of the registration certificate listing the current owner. In addition, the flock identification number assigned by APHIS may be tattooed (along with an individual animal number) to officially identify sheep or goats that are not registered. If you have a registered herd prefix, you may request that APHIS assign it as part of your flock identification number. Owners must ensure the legibility of tattoos. Owners should also be prepared to assist with the tattoo reading process, including providing light to assist with reading.


Recordkeeping Records must be kept for 5 years after the animal is sold or otherwise disposed. Ideally, producers should keep records in an electronic format, such as a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. You must record the following information:


• official identification number


• breed


• sex


• date official identification was applied


• date acquired


• name/address of previous owner (if applicable)


• date sold


• name/address of buyer


United States Department of Agriculture • Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service • Safeguarding American Agriculture


The official identification number is the complete number on the official USDA sheep/goat tag, official tattoo, or approved RFID device. If selling a group of animals that are tagged with sequential numbers, it is acceptable to list the first and last number in the series, rather than each individual number.


Additional Information


For additional information about scrapie or the National Scrapie Eradication Program, please visit the following Web sites:


• USDA Web site – www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_ health/animal_diseases/scrapie


• National Institute for Animal Agriculture Web site – www.eradicatescrapie.org


• American Sheep Industry Association Web site – www.sheepusa.org


• American Goat Federation Web site – www.americangoatfederation.org


If you have questions or need to contact your local USDA-Veterinary Services area office or State animal health office, contact information is available at the following locations:


• Directory of USDA-Veterinary Services area of fices – www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/ area_offices


• Directory of State animal health officials – www.usaha.org/portals/6/stateanimalhealth officials.pdf


USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.










ALSO, SEE CALIFORNIA AND MICHIGAN FOR THE HIGH SCRAPIE RATE IN GOATS ???


THIS needs to be addressed immediately, as to find the source, route, cause, from this unusual event...tss






Wednesday, November 28, 2012


Scientific and technical assistance on the provisional results of the study on genetic resistance to Classical scrapie in goats in Cyprus 1


SCIENTIFIC REPORT OF EFSA






Thursday, March 29, 2012


atypical Nor-98 Scrapie has spread from coast to coast in the USA 2012


NIAA Annual Conference April 11-14, 2011San Antonio, Texas






Wednesday, April 4, 2012


20120402 - Breach of quarantine/Violation de la mise en quarantaine of an ongoing Scrapie investigation






Thursday, February 23, 2012



Atypical Scrapie NOR-98 confirmed Alberta Canada sheep January 2012








Monday, November 30, 2009



USDA AND OIE COLLABORATE TO EXCLUDE ATYPICAL SCRAPIE NOR-98 ANIMAL HEALTH CODE









RESEARCH



Emerging Infectious Diseases • www.cdc.gov/eid • Vol. 17, No. 5, May 2011



Experimental Oral Transmission of Atypical Scrapie to Sheep



Marion M. Simmons, S. Jo Moore,1 Timm Konold, Lisa Thurston, Linda A. Terry, Leigh Thorne, Richard Lockey, Chris Vickery, Stephen A.C. Hawkins, Melanie J. Chaplin, and John Spiropoulos



To investigate the possibility of oral transmission of atypical scrapie in sheep and determine the distribution of infectivity in the animals’ peripheral tissues, we challenged neonatal lambs orally with atypical scrapie; they were then killed at 12 or 24 months. Screening test results were negative for disease-specifi c prion protein in all but 2 recipients; they had positive results for examination of brain, but negative for peripheral tissues. Infectivity of brain, distal ileum, and spleen from all animals was assessed in mouse bioassays; positive results were obtained from tissues that had negative results on screening. These fi ndings demonstrate that atypical scrapie can be transmitted orally and indicate that it has the potential for natural transmission and iatrogenic spread through animal feed. Detection of infectivity in tissues negative by current surveillance methods indicates that diagnostic sensitivity is suboptimal for atypical scrapie, and potentially infectious material may be able to pass into the human food chain.



SNIP...



Although we do not have epidemiologic evidence that supports the effi cient spread of disease in the fi eld, these data imply that disease is potentially transmissible under fi eld situations and that spread through animal feed may be possible if the current feed restrictions were to be relaxed. Additionally, almost no data are available on the potential for atypical scrapie to transmit to other food animal species, certainly by the oral route. However, work with transgenic mice has demonstrated the potential susceptibility of pigs, with the disturbing fi nding that the biochemical properties of the resulting PrPSc have changed on transmission (40). The implications of this observation for subsequent transmission and host target range are currently unknown.



How reassuring is this absence of detectable PrPSc from a public health perspective? The bioassays performed in this study are not titrations, so the infectious load of the positive gut tissues cannot be quantifi ed, although infectivity has been shown unequivocally. No experimental data are currently available on the zoonotic potential of atypical scrapie, either through experimental challenge of humanized mice or any meaningful epidemiologic correlation with human forms of TSE. However, the detection of infectivity in the distal ileum of animals as young as 12 months, in which all the tissues tested were negative for PrPSc by the currently available screening and confi rmatory diagnostic tests, indicates that the diagnostic sensitivity of current surveillance methods is suboptimal for detecting atypical scrapie and that potentially infectious material may be able to pass into the human food chain undetected.



Emerging Infectious Diseases • www.cdc.gov/eid • Vol. 17, No. 5, May 2011









Monday, April 25, 2011


Experimental Oral Transmission of Atypical Scrapie to Sheep


Volume 17, Number 5-May 2011









why do we not want to do TSE transmission studies on chimpanzees $


snip...


5. A positive result from a chimpanzee challenged severly would likely create alarm in some circles even if the result could not be interpreted for man. I have a view that all these agents could be transmitted provided a large enough dose by appropriate routes was given and the animals kept long enough. Until the mechanisms of the species barrier are more clearly understood it might be best to retain that hypothesis.


snip...


R. BRADLEY







Friday, February 11, 2011


Atypical/Nor98 Scrapie Infectivity in Sheep Peripheral Tissues








Wednesday, February 16, 2011


IN CONFIDENCE


SCRAPIE TRANSMISSION TO CHIMPANZEES


IN CONFIDENCE







Sunday, April 18, 2010


SCRAPIE AND ATYPICAL SCRAPIE TRANSMISSION STUDIES A REVIEW 2010







Monday, April 25, 2011


Experimental Oral Transmission of Atypical Scrapie to Sheep


Volume 17, Number 5-May 2011








Wednesday, January 18, 2012


Selection of Distinct Strain Phenotypes in Mice Infected by Ovine Natural Scrapie Isolates Similar to CH1641 Experimental Scrapie


Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology:


February 2012 - Volume 71 - Issue 2 - p 140–147







Tuesday, February 01, 2011


Sparse PrP-Sc accumulation in the placentas of goats with naturally acquired scrapie


Research article



>>> In spite of the poorly defined effects of PRNP genetics, scrapie strain, dose, route and source of infection, the caprine placenta may represent a source of infection to progeny and herd mates as well as a source of persistent environmental contamination. <<<



Could this route of infection be the cause of the many cases of Goat scrapie from the same herd in Michigan USA ?


Has this been investigated ?


(Figure 6) including five goat cases in FY 2008 that originated from the same herd in Michigan. This is highly unusual for goats, and I strenuously urge that there should be an independent investigation into finding the common denominator for these 5 goats in the same herd in Michigan with Scrapie. ...


Kind Regards, Terry









Thursday, November 18, 2010


Increased susceptibility of human-PrP transgenic mice to bovine spongiform encephalopathy following passage in sheep






Wednesday, January 19, 2011


EFSA and ECDC review scientific evidence on possible links between TSEs in animals and humans Webnachricht 19 Januar 2011






Monday, June 27, 2011


Comparison of Sheep Nor98 with Human Variably Protease-Sensitive Prionopathy and Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker Disease










Sunday, December 12, 2010


EFSA reviews BSE/TSE infectivity in small ruminant tissues News Story 2 December 2010






Wednesday, January 18, 2012


Selection of Distinct Strain Phenotypes in Mice Infected by Ovine Natural Scrapie Isolates Similar to CH1641 Experimental Scrapie


Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology: February 2012 - Volume 71 - Issue 2 - p 140–147






Thursday, July 14, 2011


Histopathological Studies of "CH1641-Like" Scrapie Sources Versus Classical Scrapie and BSE Transmitted to Ovine Transgenic Mice (TgOvPrP4)






Wednesday, January 18, 2012


BSE IN GOATS CAN BE MISTAKEN FOR SCRAPIE


February 1, 2012






Subject: CWD TSE PRION, AND SCRAPIE ?



*** Spraker suggested an interesting explanation for the occurrence of CWD. The deer pens at the Foot Hills Campus were built some 30-40 years ago by a Dr. Bob Davis. At or abut that time, allegedly, some scrapie work was conducted at this site. When deer were introduced to the pens they occupied ground that had previously been occupied by sheep.







White-tailed Deer are Susceptible to Scrapie by Natural Route of Infection


Jodi D. Smith, Justin J. Greenlee, and Robert A. Kunkle; Virus and Prion Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, USDA-ARS


Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. Previous experiments demonstrated that white-tailed deer are susceptible to sheep-derived scrapie by intracranial inoculation. The purpose of this study was to determine susceptibility of white-tailed deer to scrapie after a natural route of exposure. Deer (n=5) were inoculated by concurrent oral (30 ml) and intranasal (1 ml) instillation of a 10% (wt/vol) brain homogenate derived from a sheep clinically affected with scrapie. Non-inoculated deer were maintained as negative controls. All deer were observed daily for clinical signs. Deer were euthanized and necropsied when neurologic disease was evident, and tissues were examined for abnormal prion protein (PrPSc) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blot (WB). One animal was euthanized 15 months post-inoculation (MPI) due to an injury. At that time, examination of obex and lymphoid tissues by IHC was positive, but WB of obex and colliculus were negative. Remaining deer developed clinical signs of wasting and mental depression and were necropsied from 28 to 33 MPI. Tissues from these deer were positive for scrapie by IHC and WB. Tissues with PrPSc immunoreactivity included brain, tonsil, retropharyngeal and mesenteric lymph nodes, hemal node, Peyer’s patches, and spleen. This work demonstrates for the first time that white-tailed deer are susceptible to sheep scrapie by potential natural routes of inoculation. In-depth analysis of tissues will be done to determine similarities between scrapie in deer after intracranial and oral/intranasal inoculation and chronic wasting disease resulting from similar routes of inoculation.


see full text ;







PO-039:


A comparison of scrapie and chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer


Justin Greenlee, Jodi Smith, Eric Nicholson US Dept. Agriculture; Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Disease Center; Ames, IA USA






White-tailed deer are susceptible to the agent of sheep scrapie by intracerebral inoculation snip... It is unlikely that CWD will be eradicated from free-ranging cervids, and the disease is likely to continue to spread geographically [10]. However, the potential that white-tailed deer may be susceptible to sheep scrapie by a natural route presents an additional confounding factor to halting the spread of CWD. This leads to the additional speculations that 1) infected deer could serve as a reservoir to infect sheep with scrapie offering challenges to scrapie eradication efforts and 2) CWD spread need not remain geographically confined to current endemic areas, but could occur anywhere that sheep with scrapie and susceptible cervids cohabitate. This work demonstrates for the first time that white-tailed deer are susceptible to sheep scrapie by intracerebral inoculation with a high attack rate and that the disease that results has similarities to CWD. These experiments will be repeated with a more natural route of inoculation to determine the likelihood of the potential transmission of sheep scrapie to white-tailed deer. If scrapie were to occur in white-tailed deer, results of this study indicate that it would be detected as a TSE, but may be difficult to differentiate from CWD without in-depth biochemical analysis.












Sunday, December 2, 2012



CANADA 19 cases of mad cow disease SCENARIO 4: ‘WE HAD OUR CHANCE AND WE BLEW IT’








Friday, November 23, 2012


sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease update As at 5th November 2012 UK, USA, AND CANADA







Tuesday, November 6, 2012


Transmission of New Bovine Prion to Mice, Atypical Scrapie, BSE, and Sporadic CJD, November-December 2012 update






Saturday, October 6, 2012


TRANSMISSION, DIFFERENTIATION, AND PATHOBIOLOGY OF TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES 2011 Annual Report






Tuesday, July 17, 2012


O.I.E. BSE, CWD, SCRAPIE, TSE PRION DISEASE Final Report of the 80th General Session, 20 - 25 May 2012







RIP MOM DECEMBER 14, 1997 CONFIRMED HEIDENHAIN VARIANT CREUTZFELDT JAKOB DISEASE



layperson



Terry S. Singeltary Sr. P.O. Box 42 Bacliff, Texas USA 77518