SCRAPIE USA

My Photo
Name:
Location: BACLIFF, Texas, United States

My mother was murdered by what I call corporate and political homicide i.e. FOR PROFIT! she died from a rare phenotype of CJD i.e. the Heidenhain Variant of Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease i.e. sporadic, simply meaning from unknown route and source. I have simply been trying to validate her death DOD 12/14/97 with the truth. There is a route, and there is a source. There are many here in the USA. WE must make CJD and all human TSE, of all age groups 'reportable' Nationally and Internationally, with a written CJD questionnaire asking real questions pertaining to route and source of this agent. Friendly fire has the potential to play a huge role in the continued transmission of this agent via the medical, dental, and surgical arena. We must not flounder any longer. ...TSS

Sunday, February 10, 2013

Scientific Opinion on the risk of transmission of classical scrapie via in vivo derived embryo transfer in ovine animals

EFSA Journal 2013;11(2):3080 [15 pp.]. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2013.3080 EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ) SCIENTIFIC OPINION


 
Scientific Opinion on the risk of transmission of classical scrapie via in vivo derived embryo transfer in ovine animals1
 
 
 
 
EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards2, 3
 
 
 
 
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Parma, Italy Panel Members Olivier Andreoletti, Dorte Lau Baggesen, Declan Bolton, Patrick Butaye, Paul Cook, Robert Davies, Pablo S. Fernandez Escamez, John Griffin, Tine Hald, Arie Havelaar, Kostas Koutsoumanis, Roland Lindqvist, James McLauchlin, Truls Nesbakken, Miguel Prieto Maradona, Antonia Ricci, Giuseppe Ru, Moez Sanaa, Marion Simmons, John Sofos and John ThrelfallAcknowledgment The Panel wishes to thank the members of the Working Group on the risk of transmission of classical scrapie via in vivo embryo transfer in ovine animals: Olivier Andreoletti, Nora Hunter and Ciriaco Ligios for the preparatory work on this scientific opinion and the hearing experts: Michel Thibier and Pascale Chavatte-Palmer, and EFSA staff: Pablo Romero Barrios for the support provided to this scientific opinion.Possible conflict of interest One member of the Panel did not participate in the discussion on the subject referred to above because of potential conflicts of interest identified in accordance with the EFSA policy on declarations of interests.Contact biohaz@efsa.europa.eu
 
 
 
 
Type: Opinion of the Scientific Committee/Scientific Panel On request from: European Commission Question number: EFSA-Q-2012-00647 Adopted: 24 January 2013 Published: 08 February 2013 Affiliation: European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Parma, Italy Article(0.3 Mb) Send Print Cite
 
 
 
 
Abstract
 
 
 
 
The risk of transmission of classical scrapie via the transfer of in vivo derived embryo in ovines was assessed, taking into account the scientific information made available since the last EFSA opinion on this topic (2010) (see http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/1429.htm). The potential impact of PrP genotype of the embryo and/or of the ram and donor ewe on this risk was also assessed. The new data made available over the last three years further reinforce the view that classical scrapie could be vertically transmitted in sheep. Since the possibility of such vertical transmission was already considered in the previous opinion, its conclusions and recommendations relating to the risk of classical scrapie transmission via embryo transfer remain valid. In ovines, the susceptibility to classical scrapie infection in sheep is strongly influenced by certain polymorphisms of the PrP gene. Under natural exposure conditions, animals that are heterozygous or homozygous A136R154R171 display respectively a low or negligible risk of being infected. The genetic control of the susceptibility to classical scrapie is also likely to impact on the risk of transmitting the disease via embryo transfer. Irrespective of the embryo’s genotype, embryos derived from rams and dams carrying at least one ARR allele would significantly decrease this risk (compared to an embryo from parents of unknown genotypes). The use of homozygous ARR embryos would provide the highest level of safety regarding the risk of transmitting classical scrapie through embryo transfer (in vivo derived embryos). The use of heterozygous ARR embryos would ensure a higher level of safety compared to Q171/Q171 embryos. Finally, it was concluded that, providing the OIE recommendations and procedures relating to embryo transfer are adhered to, the risk of transmitting classical scrapie due to the transfer of homozygous or heterozygous ovine ARR embryos can be considered negligible.
 
 
 
 
© European Food Safety Authority, 2013
 
 
 
 
Summary Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the risk of transmission of classical scrapie via in vivo derived embryo transfer in ovine. The Panel was requested to provide an updated scientific opinion on the risk of transmission of classical scrapie via in vivo derived embryo transfer in ovine animals, taking into account any new scientific information made available since its last assessment on this issue in 2010. In addition, the Panel was requested to elaborate on this risk of transmission according to the PrP genotype of the embryo and/or of the ram and donor ewe.
 
 
 
 
The Panel reviewed the scientific literature published since the adoption of the previous Opinion covering this issue in 2010 and concluded that relevant findings available further reinforce the view that classical scrapie in small ruminants could be vertically transmitted. Since the possibility of vertical transmission was already considered in the previous opinion, these new findings do not make it necessary to revise the conclusions related to the risk of classical scrapie transmission via embryo transfer.
 
 
 
 
With regard to the effect of genotype, the susceptibility to classical scrapie infection in sheep is strongly influenced by certain polymorphisms of the PrP gene. Under natural exposure conditions, animals that are heterozygous or homozygous A136R154R171 show respectively a low or negligible risk of being infected by classical scrapie. This genetic control of the susceptibility to classical scrapie infection directly influences the risk of transmitting the disease via embryo transfer in that, irrespective of the embryo’s genotype, the use of embryos derived from rams and dams carrying at least one ARR allele would significantly decrease the risk of transmitting classical scrapie via embryo transfer (by comparison to an embryo from parents of unknown genotypes). Furthermore, the use of homozygous ARR embryos would provide the highest possible level of safety with regard to minimising the risk of transmitting classical scrapie through embryo transfer (in vivo derived embryos). The use of heterozygous ARR embryos would ensure a higher level of safety by comparison with homozygous Q171 (A/V136, R/H154) embryos.
 
 
 
 
Providing that the OIE recommendations and procedures relating to embryo transfer are adhered to, the risk of transmitting classical scrapie by the implantation of homozygous or heterozygous ARR ovine embryos can be considered negligible.
 
 
 
 
The Panel indicated that the recommendations relating to the risk of transmitting classical scrapie via embryo transfer that were formulated in the 2010 opinion remain valid. In particular, the presence of infectivity in ovine embryos collected from scrapie infected dams bearing susceptible genotypes needs to be assessed before a definitive assessment of the risk of transmitting classical scrapie via the use of embryos bearing a susceptible genotype can be made.
 
 
 
 
Keywords Classical scrapie, ovine, sheep, embryo transfer, transmission risk
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
snip...
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
 
 
 
 
CONCLUSIONS Since the 2010 opinion only two relevant studies have been published. None of them suggest a need to revise the previous conclusion adopted by the BIOHAZ Panel in January 2010 i.e ‘Based on the data currently available the risk of TSE transmission associated with embryos collected from Classical scrapie incubating ewes and she-goats ranges from negligible to low. However, data are insufficient to conclude that such a risk is negligible.’ In sheep the susceptibility to classical scrapie infection is strongly influenced by the polymorphisms of the PrP gene. Under natural exposure conditions, animals that are heterozygous or homozygous ARR show respectively a low or negligible risk of being infected by classical scrapie. This genetic control of the susceptibility to classical scrapie infection directly influences the risk of transmitting the disease via embryo transfer:
 
 
 
 
– Irrespective of the embryo’s genotype, the use of embryos derived from rams and dams carrying at least one ARR allele would significantly decrease the risk of transmitting classical scrapie via embryo transfer (by comparison to an embryo from parents of unknown genotypes).
 
 
 
 
– The use of homozygous ARR embryos would provide the highest possible level of safety with regard to the risk of transmitting classical scrapie through embryo transfer (in vivo derived embryos).
 
 
 
 
– The use of heterozygous ARR embryos would ensure a higher level of safety by comparison with Q171/Q17110 embryos.
 
 
 
 
– The risk of transmitting classical scrapie by implantation of a Q171/Q171 embryo collected from a dam with an unknown classical scrapie status cannot be considered negligible. Providing that the OIE recommendations and procedures relating to embryo transfer are adhered to, the risk of transmitting classical scrapie by the implantation of homozygous or heterozygous ovine ARR embryos can be considered negligible.
 
 
 
 
RECOMMENDATIONS
 
 
 
 
The recommendations relating to the risk of transmitting classical scrapie via embryo transfer that were formulated in the 2010 opinion remain valid.
 
 
 
 
In particular, the presence of infectivity in ovine embryos collected from scrapie infected dams bearing susceptible genotypes needs to be assessed before a definitive assessment of the risk of transmitting classical scrapie via the use of embryos bearing a susceptible genotype can be made.
 
 
 
 
10 By convention Q171 refers to ARQ, VRQ, and AHQ alleles.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
SEMEN AND TSE INFECTIVITY
 
 
 
 
USDA
 
 
 
 
Chronic Wasting Disease
 
 
 
 
Program Standards
 
 
 
 
July 2012
 
 
 
 
At this time there is no scientific evidence that germplasm (embryos or semen) may transmit CWD. However, there is no scientific evidence that embryos or semen from positive animals do not serve as a route of transmission for CWD. Because of the lack of scientific information on transmission potential, APHIS recommends that germplasm from known CWD-positive animals should not be used. If more definitive evidence of the role of embryos or semen in the transmission of CWD should become available, this guidance will be changed.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Envt.18:
 
 
 
 
Mother to Offspring Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease
 
 
 
 
Candace K. Mathiason,† Amy Nalls, Kelly Anderson, Jeanette Hayes-Klug, Jenny G. Powers, Nicholas J. Haley and Edward A. Hoover Colorado State University; Fort Collins, CO USA†Presenting author; Email: ckm@lamar.colostate.edu
 
 
 
 
We have developed a new cervid model in small Asian muntjac deer (Muntiacus reevesi) to study potential modes of vertical transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) from mother to offspring. Eight of eight (8/8) muntjac doe orally infected with CWD tested PrPCWD lymphoid positive by four months post infection. Ten fawns were born to these CWD-infected doe— four of the fawns were viable, five were non-viable and one was a first trimester fetus harvested from a CWD-infected doe euthanized at end-stage disease. The viable fawns have been monitored for CWD infection by immunohistochemistry and sPMCA performed on serial tonsil and rectal lymphoid tissue biopsies. PrPCWD has been detected in one fawn by IHC as early as 40 days of age. Moreover, sPMCA performed on rectal lymphoid tissue has yielded positive results on another fawn at ten days of age. In addition, sPMCA assays have demonstrated amplifiable prions in fetal placental or spleen tissue of three non-viable fawns and mammary tissue of the dams. Additional pregnancy related fluids and tissues from the doe as well as tissue from the nonviable fawns are currently being probed for the presence of CWD. In summary, we have employed the muntjac deer model, to demonstrate for the first time the transmission of CWD from mother to offspring. These studies provide the foundation to investigate the mechanisms and pathways of maternal prion transfer.
 
 
 
 
 
 
PPo3-18:
 
 
 
 
A Possible Case of Maternal Transmission of the BSE Agent within Captive Cheetah Affected with Feline Spongiform Encephalopathy
 
 
 
 
Anna Bencsik, Sabine Debeer, Thierry Petit and Thierry Baron Afssa; Unité ATNC; Lyon, France; Zoo de la Palmyre; Les Mathes, France
 
 
 
 
Key words: BSE, FSE, vertical transmission
 
 
 
 
Introduction. Feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE) is considered to be related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). It has been reported in domestic cats as well as in captive wild cats including cheetahs, first in the United Kingdom (UK) and then in other European countries. In France, several cases were described in cheetahs either imported from UK or born in France. Here we report details of two other FSE cases in captive cheetah. These cases are of particular interest since the 2nd case of FSE in a cheetah born in France, appears most likely due to maternal transmission.1
 
 
 
 
Results. Complete PrPd study showed the close likeness between the two cheetah cases. The TgOvPrP4 mouse brains infected with cattle BSE and cheetah FSE revealed similar vacuolar lesion profiles, PrPd brain mapping with occurrence of typical florid plaques.
 
 
 
 
Materials and Methods. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), pathological form of PrP(PrPd) was analyzed in the brains and peripheral organs of these two cheetahs. Transmission studies to the TgOvPrP4 mouse line were also performed, for comparison with the transmission of cattle BSE. Lesion profiles of the infected transgenic mice were analyzed as well as type and brain distribution of PrPd.


 
Conclusion. Collectively, these data indicate that both FSE cases harbor the same strain of agent as the cattle BSE agent. Because this is most probably a case of maternal transmission of the disease, this new observation may have some
 
 
 
 
impact on our knowledge of vertical transmission of BSE agent-linked TSEs such as in human variant Creutzfeldt Jakob disease.
 
 
 
 
References
 
 
 
 
1. Bencsik et al. PLoS One 2009; 4:6929.
 
 
 
 
PRION 2011
 
 
 
 
landesbioscience.com
 
 
 
 
International Prion Congress: From agent to disease September 8–11, 2010 Salzburg, Austria
 
 
 
 
 
 
Saturday, February 11, 2012




PrPSc Detection and Infectivity in Semen from Scrapie-Infected Sheep
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Friday, December 23, 2011
 
 
 
 
Detection of PrPres in Genetically Susceptible Fetuses from Sheep with Natural Scrapie
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
why do we not want to do TSE transmission studies on chimpanzees $
 
 
 
 
 
 
5. A positive result from a chimpanzee challenged severly would likely create alarm in some circles even if the result could not be interpreted for man. I have a view that all these agents could be transmitted provided a large enough dose by appropriate routes was given and the animals kept long enough. Until the mechanisms of the species barrier are more clearly understood it might be best to retain that hypothesis.
 
 
 
 
 
 
snip...
 
 
 
 
 
 
R. BRADLEY
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Wednesday, February 16, 2011


 
IN CONFIDENCE
 
 
 
 
SCRAPIE TRANSMISSION TO CHIMPANZEES


 
IN CONFIDENCE


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sunday, December 12, 2010
 
 
 
 
EFSA reviews BSE/TSE infectivity in small ruminant tissues News Story 2 December 2010
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sunday, April 18, 2010


 
SCRAPIE AND ATYPICAL SCRAPIE TRANSMISSION STUDIES A REVIEW 2010
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Thursday, December 23, 2010


 
Molecular Typing of Protease-Resistant Prion Protein in Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies of Small Ruminants, France, 2002-2009


 
Volume 17, Number 1 January 2011


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Thursday, November 18, 2010
 
 
 
 
Increased susceptibility of human-PrP transgenic mice to bovine spongiform encephalopathy following passage in sheep
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Monday, April 25, 2011


 
Experimental Oral Transmission of Atypical Scrapie to Sheep
 
 
 
 
Volume 17, Number 5-May 2011
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Friday, February 11, 2011
 
 
 
 
Atypical/Nor98 Scrapie Infectivity in Sheep Peripheral Tissues
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Thursday, March 29, 2012


 
atypical Nor-98 Scrapie has spread from coast to coast in the USA 2012
 
 
 
 
NIAA Annual Conference April 11-14, 2011San Antonio, Texas
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Wednesday, April 4, 2012


 
20120402 - Breach of quarantine/Violation de la mise en quarantaine of an ongoing Scrapie investigation
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Michigan and California have had a high spike in Goat Scrapie cases, compared to elsewhere ???
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tuesday, February 01, 2011


 
Sparse PrP-Sc accumulation in the placentas of goats with naturally acquired scrapie
 
 
 
 
(Figure 6) including five goat cases in FY 2008 that originated from the same herd in Michigan. This is highly unusual for goats, and I strenuously urge that there should be an independent investigation into finding the common denominator for these 5 goats in the same herd in Michigan with Scrapie. ...
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Thursday, February 23, 2012
 
 
 
 
Atypical Scrapie NOR-98 confirmed Alberta Canada sheep January 2012
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
RESEARCH
 
 
 
 
Emerging Infectious Diseases • www.cdc.gov/eid • Vol. 17, No. 5, May 2011
 
 
 
 
Experimental Oral Transmission of Atypical Scrapie to Sheep
 
 
 
 
Marion M. Simmons, S. Jo Moore,1 Timm Konold, Lisa Thurston, Linda A. Terry, Leigh Thorne, Richard Lockey, Chris Vickery, Stephen A.C. Hawkins, Melanie J. Chaplin, and John Spiropoulos
 
 
 
 
To investigate the possibility of oral transmission of atypical scrapie in sheep and determine the distribution of infectivity in the animals’ peripheral tissues, we challenged neonatal lambs orally with atypical scrapie; they were then killed at 12 or 24 months. Screening test results were negative for disease-specifi c prion protein in all but 2 recipients; they had positive results for examination of brain, but negative for peripheral tissues. Infectivity of brain, distal ileum, and spleen from all animals was assessed in mouse bioassays; positive results were obtained from tissues that had negative results on screening. These fi ndings demonstrate that atypical scrapie can be transmitted orally and indicate that it has the potential for natural transmission and iatrogenic spread through animal feed. Detection of infectivity in tissues negative by current surveillance methods indicates that diagnostic sensitivity is suboptimal for atypical scrapie, and potentially infectious material may be able to pass into the human food chain.
 
 
 
 
SNIP...
 
 
 
 
Although we do not have epidemiologic evidence that supports the effi cient spread of disease in the fi eld, these data imply that disease is potentially transmissible under fi eld situations and that spread through animal feed may be possible if the current feed restrictions were to be relaxed. Additionally, almost no data are available on the potential for atypical scrapie to transmit to other food animal species, certainly by the oral route. However, work with transgenic mice has demonstrated the potential susceptibility of pigs, with the disturbing fi nding that the biochemical properties of the resulting PrPSc have changed on transmission (40). The implications of this observation for subsequent transmission and host target range are currently unknown.
 
 
 
 
How reassuring is this absence of detectable PrPSc from a public health perspective? The bioassays performed in this study are not titrations, so the infectious load of the positive gut tissues cannot be quantifi ed, although infectivity has been shown unequivocally. No experimental data are currently available on the zoonotic potential of atypical scrapie, either through experimental challenge of humanized mice or any meaningful epidemiologic correlation with human forms of TSE. However, the detection of infectivity in the distal ileum of animals as young as 12 months, in which all the tissues tested were negative for PrPSc by the currently available screening and confi rmatory diagnostic tests, indicates that the diagnostic sensitivity of current surveillance methods is suboptimal for detecting atypical scrapie and that potentially infectious material may be able to pass into the human food chain undetected.
 
 
 
 
Emerging Infectious Diseases • www.cdc.gov/eid • Vol. 17, No. 5, May 2011
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1: J Infect Dis 1980 Aug;142(2):205-8
 
 
 
 
Oral transmission of kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and scrapie to nonhuman primates.
 
 
 
 
Gibbs CJ Jr, Amyx HL, Bacote A, Masters CL, Gajdusek DC.
 
 
 
 
Kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease of humans and scrapie disease of sheep and goats were transmitted to squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) that were exposed to the infectious agents only by their nonforced consumption of known infectious tissues. The asymptomatic incubation period in the one monkey exposed to the virus of kuru was 36 months; that in the two monkeys exposed to the virus of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was 23 and 27 months, respectively; and that in the two monkeys exposed to the virus of scrapie was 25 and 32 months, respectively. Careful physical examination of the buccal cavities of all of the monkeys failed to reveal signs or oral lesions. One additional monkey similarly exposed to kuru has remained asymptomatic during the 39 months that it has been under observation.
 
 
 
 
snip...
 
 
 
 
The successful transmission of kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and scrapie by natural feeding to squirrel monkeys that we have reported provides further grounds for concern that scrapie-infected meat may occasionally give rise in humans to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.
 
 
 
 
PMID: 6997404
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Recently the question has again been brought up as to whether scrapie is transmissible to man. This has followed reports that the disease has been transmitted to primates. One particularly lurid speculation (Gajdusek 1977) conjectures that the agents of scrapie, kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and transmissible encephalopathy of mink are varieties of a single "virus". The U.S. Department of Agriculture concluded that it could "no longer justify or permit scrapie-blood line and scrapie-exposed sheep and goats to be processed for human or animal food at slaughter or rendering plants" (ARC 84/77)" The problem is emphasised by the finding that some strains of scrapie produce lesions identical to the once which characterise the human dementias"
 
 
 
 
Whether true or not. the hypothesis that these agents might be transmissible to man raises two considerations. First, the safety of laboratory personnel requires prompt attention. Second, action such as the "scorched meat" policy of USDA makes the solution of the acrapie problem urgent if the sheep industry is not to suffer grievously.
 
 
 
 
snip...
 
 
 
 
76/10.12/4.6
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Nature. 1972 Mar 10;236(5341):73-4.
 
 
 
 
Transmission of scrapie to the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis).
 
 
 
 
Gibbs CJ Jr, Gajdusek DC.


 
Nature 236, 73 - 74 (10 March 1972); doi:10.1038/236073a0
 
 
 
 
Transmission of Scrapie to the Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis)
 
 
 
C. J. GIBBS jun. & D. C. GAJDUSEK
 
 
 
 
National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland
 
 
 
 
SCRAPIE has been transmitted to the cynomolgus, or crab-eating, monkey (Macaca fascicularis) with an incubation period of more than 5 yr from the time of intracerebral inoculation of scrapie-infected mouse brain. The animal developed a chronic central nervous system degeneration, with ataxia, tremor and myoclonus with associated severe scrapie-like pathology of intensive astroglial hypertrophy and proliferation, neuronal vacuolation and status spongiosus of grey matter. The strain of scrapie virus used was the eighth passage in Swiss mice (NIH) of a Compton strain of scrapie obtained as ninth intracerebral passage of the agent in goat brain, from Dr R. L. Chandler (ARC, Compton, Berkshire).
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
IT is of my opinion, that the OIE and the USDA et al, are the soul reason, and responsible parties, for Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy TSE prion diseases, including typical and atypical BSE, typical and atypical Scrapie, and all strains of CWD, and human TSE there from, spreading around the globe.
 
 
 
 
I have lost all confidence of this organization as a regulatory authority on animal disease, and consider it nothing more than a National Trading Brokerage for all strains of animal TSE, just to satisfy there commodity. AS i said before, OIE should hang up there jock strap now, since it appears they will buckle every time a country makes some political hay about trade protocol, commodities and futures. IF they are not going to be science based, they should do everyone a favor and dissolve there organization.
 
 
 
 
JUST because of low documented human body count with nvCJD and the long incubation periods, the lack of sound science being replaced by political and corporate science in relations with the fact that science has now linked some sporadic CJD with atypical BSE and atypical scrapie, and the very real threat of CWD being zoonosis, I believed the O.I.E. has failed terribly and again, I call for this organization to be dissolved. ...
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tuesday, July 17, 2012
 
 
 
 
O.I.E. BSE, CWD, SCRAPIE, TSE PRION DISEASE Final Report of the 80th General Session, 20 - 25 May 2012
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Thursday, December 20, 2012
 
 
 
 
OIE GROUP RECOMMENDS THAT SCRAPE PRION DISEASE BE DELISTED AND SAME OLD BSe WITH BOVINE MAD COW DISEASE
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
TSS

Wednesday, February 06, 2013

TAHC Continues Efforts to Eradicate Scrapie

NEWS RELEASE





For Immediate Release Feb. 5, 2013 Contact: Yvonne "Bonnie" Ramirez, Director of Communications (512) 719-0710 Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC)




TAHC Continues Efforts to Eradicate Scrapie




AUSTIN - The Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC) continues to work with the Texas sheep and goat industries toward the eradication of Scrapie. Texas currently leads the nation in sheep and goat production. A common goal of the US Sheep Industry and the American Sheep Industry (ASI) is to eradicate Scrapie from the US borders by 2017. To help achieve this goal, the USDA is considering a proposed rule that would make the identification requirements for goats similar to those currently in place for sheep, as well as possibly expanding surveillance efforts for Scrapie in goats. Once the disease is eradicated, the US would then seek recognition as Scrapie-free in accordance with the World Organization for Animal Health. (OIE)




Texas leads the nation in sheep and goats production. Since 2009, there have been no confirmed cases of Scrapie in Texas. The last big spike in Texas Scrapie cases was in 2006 with 9 infected herds. According to USDA regulations, Texas must conduct adequate Scrapie surveillance by a collecting a minimum of 598 sheep samples annually. In 2012 there were 1,050 samples collected from animals with Texas tags.




Dr. Dee Ellis, State Veterinarian, said, "Texas has made significant progress in battling this disease. The Scrapie Program has proven to be successful in Texas. Fighting this disease and implementing an animal identification program has worked." To date, Texas has 30 participating flocks enrolled in the Scrapie Flock Certification program.




Nationally, in 2005, there was a peak in Scrapie numbers. In the last fiscal year, for the first time ever, there were more Scrapie field cases in goats than in sheep. In fiscal years 2008 and 2011, two significant Scrapie outbreaks occurred in goats in­volving a total of 18 positive goats.




The National Scrapie Eradication Program continued to make excellent progress in fiscal year 2012. In FY 2012, the percent of cull sheep found positive at slaughter decreased. This measure of prevalence decreased 96.2 percent since slaughter surveillance started in FY 2003 and 24.7 percent, respectively since FY 2011. Additionally, there was a 47% decrease in the number of infected and source flocks identified during FY 2012 compared to the previous fiscal year.




Scrapie is a degenerative disease of the nervous system that falls into the category of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSE). The disease is caused by a transmissible prion or abnormal protein which is very stable in the environment. Traditional blood tests are not reliable to diagnose Scrapie, so a sample is needed to diagnose it. Currently, no treatment exists for Scrapie. There is no known evidence of Scrapie transmission to humans.




While animals of any age may be exposed to Scrapie, lambs and kids are at the greatest risk of contracting the disease and are often infected by their dams shortly after birth.




Typically, infected animals don't show signs of Scrapie, such as behavioral changes, tremors, and incoordination that progresses to recumbency and death, until they are two years of age or older.




The most effective method of Scrapie prevention is to maintain a closed flock. Raising replacement ewes, purchasing genetically resistant (RR) rams or buying from a certified-free Scrapie flock are other options to reduce the risk the Scrapie. At this time the resistant genetic markers in goats have not been identified, therefore it is important to maintain your sheep and goat herds separately.




Since the incubation period for Scrapie is typically two to five years, producers should record individual identification numbers and the seller's premises identification number on purchase and sales records. These records must be maintained for a minimum of five years. "The success of the Scrapie Eradication Program is tied to producers keeping good records of sales and purchases," said Dr. Ellis.




TAHC rules regulate official identification tags or a registration tattoo be applied to all sheep 18 months of age and older, all breeding sheep, all breeding goats except those commingled with other sheep, and all sexually intact show or exhibition animals.


Producers should notify the Texas Animal Health Commission (800-550-8242) or the USDA-Austin Office (512-383-2400) if they have a sheep or goat over 18 months with neurologic signs such as incoordination, behavioral changes, or intense itching with wool loss. Producers may order Scrapie identification tags by calling 866-873-2824. For more information, please visit our web site at www.tahc.texas.gov or give us a call.




The Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC) is one of the oldest state regulatory agencies. TAHC was founded by the legislature in 1893 with a mission to combat fever ticks that plagued the Texas Cattle Industry. Today, the agency works to protect the health of all Texas livestock including: cattle, equine, sheep, goats, swine, poultry, exotic livestock and fowl.














CORRECTION TO FEB. 5 NEWS RELEASE



For Immediate Release



Feb. 8, 2013 Contact: Yvonne "Bonnie" Ramirez, Director of Communications (512) 719-0710 Texas




Animal Health Commission (TAHC) TAHC Continues Efforts to Eradicate Scrapie
Below is a REVISED Scrapie News Release. This news release replaces the previous one that was emailed on Feb. 5, 2013.





The corrected content/information can be found in the third to the last paragraph of the news release in bold and italicized font.



We apologize for the confusion.





AUSTIN - The Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC) continues to work with the Texas sheep and goat industries toward the eradication of Scrapie. Texas currently leads the nation in sheep and goat production. A common goal of the US Sheep Industry and the American Sheep Industry (ASI) is to eradicate Scrapie from the US borders by 2017. To help achieve this goal, the USDA is considering a proposed rule that would make the identification requirements for goats similar to those currently in place for sheep, as well as possibly expanding surveillance efforts for Scrapie in goats. Once the disease is eradicated, the US would then seek recognition as Scrapie-free in accordance with the World Organization for Animal Health. (OIE)





Texas leads the nation in sheep and goats production. Since 2009, there have been no confirmed cases of Scrapie in Texas. The last big spike in Texas Scrapie cases was in 2006 with 9 infected herds. According to USDA regulations, Texas must conduct adequate Scrapie surveillance by a collecting a minimum of 598 sheep samples annually. In 2012 there were 1,050 samples collected from animals with Texas tags.





Dr. Dee Ellis, State Veterinarian, said, "Texas has made significant progress in battling this disease. The Scrapie Program has proven to be successful in Texas. Fighting this disease and implementing an animal identification program has worked." To date, Texas has 30 participating flocks enrolled in the Scrapie Flock Certification program.





Nationally, in 2005, there was a peak in Scrapie numbers. In the last fiscal year, for the first time ever, there were more Scrapie field cases in goats than in sheep. In fiscal years 2008 and 2011, two significant Scrapie outbreaks occurred in goats in­volving a total of 18 positive goats.





The National Scrapie Eradication Program continued to make excellent progress in fiscal year 2012. In FY 2012, the percent of cull sheep found positive at slaughter decreased. This measure of prevalence decreased 96.2 percent since slaughter surveillance started in FY 2003 and 24.7 percent, respectively since FY 2011. Additionally, there was a 47% decrease in the number of infected and source flocks identified during FY 2012 compared to the previous fiscal year.





Scrapie is a degenerative disease of the nervous system that falls into the category of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSE). The disease is caused by a transmissible prion or abnormal protein which is very stable in the environment. Traditional blood tests are not reliable to diagnose Scrapie, so a tissue sample is needed to diagnose it. Currently, no treatment exists for Scrapie. There is no known evidence of Scrapie transmission to humans.





While animals of any age may be exposed to Scrapie, lambs and kids are at the greatest risk of contracting the disease and are often infected by their dams shortly after birth. Typically, infected animals don't show signs of Scrapie, such as behavioral changes, tremors, and incoordination that progresses to recumbency and death, until they are two years of age or older.





The most effective method of Scrapie prevention is to maintain a closed flock. Raising replacement ewes, purchasing genetically resistant (RR) rams or buying from a certified-free Scrapie flock are other options to reduce the risk the Scrapie. At this time the resistant genetic markers in goats have not been identified, therefore it is important to maintain your sheep and goat herds separately.





Since the incubation period for Scrapie is typically two to five years, producers should record individual identification numbers and the seller's premises identification number on purchase and sales records. These records must be maintained for a minimum of five years. "The success of the Scrapie Eradication Program is tied to producers keeping good records of sales and purchases," said Dr. Ellis.





TAHC rules require that official identification tags or a registration tattoo be applied to:





* All sheep 18 months of age and older





* All breeding sheep





* All breeding goats (except for commercial goats that have no contact with sheep)





* All sexually intact show or exhibition animals





Producers should notify the Texas Animal Health Commission (800-550-8242) or the USDA-Austin Office (512-383-2400) if they have an adult sheep or goat with neurologic signs such as incoordination, behavioral changes, or intense itching with wool loss. Producers may order Scrapie identification tags by calling 866-873-2824. For more information, please visit our web site at
www.tahc.state.tx.us





The Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC) is one of the oldest state regulatory agencies. TAHC was founded by the legislature in 1893 with a mission to combat fever ticks that plagued the Texas Cattle Industry. Today, the agency works to protect the health of all Texas livestock including: cattle, equine, sheep, goats, swine, poultry, exotic livestock and fowl.





http://campaign.r20.constantcontact.com/render?llr=kpzk9zgab&v=001FbEh9Xz0N4LL62OOLkCF3kt133fvSY19OWWYJ7uYJg7QkaGN1kfsqUgYZI1TdSRiu6vKy7pdIxGWPANjEs0kfAC-Oywq2c1fM8ruOaAUKegfYrh_BNk0vw%3D%3D




 
 
 
 


2002




Subject: TEXAS FINDS FOUR SCRAPIE INFECTED FLOCKS IN 15 MONTHS (3 herd flocks outside Texas)



Date: Mon, 26 Aug 2002 08:05:52 –0700



From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."



Reply-To: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy To: BSE-L@uni-karlsruhe.de




######## Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy #########




August 1 signaled the deadline for sheep, as well as many goats, to be identified with an ear tag approved by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) when the animals are moved from the farm for exhibition or sale. The ear tag is imprinted with a ranch identification number, which makes it possible to trace the animal back to the farm where it was born, in case scrapie infection is detected later in the animal. The identification tags, combined with accurate record keeping, are key elements of the national program to eradicate scrapie, the fatal, degenerative disease that can affect the brains of sheep and, sometimes, goats.




"In November 2001, USDA introduced a new national scrapie eradication program at the request of the American Sheep Industry Association. Since then, we've been in a 'grace period,' while producers obtained ear tag supplies and became familiar with the regulations," said Dr. Linda Logan, Texas' state veterinarian and head of the Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC), the state's livestock health regulatory agency. "August 1 signaled the end of this 'phase-in period,' and the deadline for identification tags to be applied to sheep and many goats before they are sold or commingled with those from other farms."




"During the past eight months, more than 9,300 Texas ranchers have called the TAHC for a premise, or ranch identification number. This number is printed on the rancher's supply of the metal or plastic ear tags provided at no cost by the USDA," said Dr. Logan. "The back side of the tag is imprinted with an individual animal number, so ranchers may keep detailed records on each sheep or goat, if they wish."




Scrapie regulations require the following animals to have the official ear tag before they are sold or are exhibited: * all breeding sheep, regardless of age * all sheep 18 months of age or older




* all breeding goats and goats over 18 months of age, except low-risk goats. Low-risk goats are goats that have not been commingled with sheep, except low-risk (white-faced) commercial sheep. * sexually intact sheep or goats for show or exhibition. (Sexually intact animals are animals that have not been neutered.) * any sheep or goats that are considered to be at high risk, exposed to or positive for scrapie




"In lieu of an ear tag, a tattoo can be used as identification for registered meat or dairy show goats, as long as the animals move with their registration papers," explained veterinarian Terry Conger, TAHC's state epidemiologist. A premise identification ear tag is to be placed on the animal when it moves to slaughter, or if it sold without registration papers, he said.




"Wethers, which are neutered sheep, do not have to be tagged prior to an exhibition or a sale. Furthermore, commercial goats that haven't had any contact with sheep, don't have to be tagged for sale," explained Dr. Conger. "Commercial goats are those that are raised or bred for meat or fiber production and are not used for exhibition and are not registered with a breed association."




"Ranchers who haven't obtained a premise number and ear tags can still sell their animals," explained Dr. Logan. "Animals can be tagged by livestock market personnel, who may charge a small fee, to cover costs for ear tag application and for the required record keeping."




Dr. Conger also said slaughter house operators, agricultural science teachers, veterinarians or agricultural extension agents likewise may apply tags for producers. However, he encouraged producers to get their own premise identification number and tags by calling the TAHC's 'tag line' at 1-866-873-2824. There's no charge for the call, premise number or tags, he said.




The TAHC has operated under the USDA scrapie regulations since November 2001, while state regulations were developed to support the national program, said Dr. Logan. "We've worked closely with the sheep and goat industry in Texas to ensure Texas scrapie regulations reflect the federal rules. All states must meet or exceed these national standards," said Dr. Logan. "On Tuesday, July 30, the 12 TAHC commissioners adopted Texas scrapie regulations, and these will go into effect September 1." In the meantime, she said the TAHC will continue to operate under the national regulations.




Key elements of Texas' scrapie regulations for animal identification and movement requirements include:




* Tagging of eligible animals prior to in-state or interstate movement or exhibitions.




* Maintaining records for five years. Ranchers, markets, terminal feedlots, or persons




providing tags must keep records that include: -- date, number and species of animals tagged, bought or sold.




-- name and address of the person or market from which the animals were obtained or sold.




-- agents, such as agricultural science teachers or livestock markets, who supply ear tags, must maintain records that include the animal owner's name, address and the premise identification number for each animal.




All sheep and goats transported into Texas from other states must have had a certificate of veterinary inspection issued within the previous 30 days by a USDA-accredited private veterinary practitioner. Information to be included on the inspection document:




-- date inspection was made




-- number, species and gender of the animals -- reason for transport (exhibition, breeding purposes, feeding or slaughter) -- name and address of both the consignor and the recipient of the animals -- statement by the issuing veterinarian that the animals were not exhibiting clinical signs indicative of scrapie or any other infectious disease. The veterinarian must attest that the animals are not from a scrapie-infected, high-risk or exposed flock. -- all breeding or exhibition sheep and goats must be identified with an official ear tag, with the premise identification number recorded on the certificate of veterinary inspection.




-- sheep and goats entering Texas for feeding and/or slaughter also must meet the tagging and information record keeping requirements. The only exemption applies to feeder and/or slaughter sheep younger than 18 months and goats that have not been commingled with sheep.




"In lieu of an ear tag, tattooed registered goats can enter Texas with their registration papers," explained Dr. Conger. "As always, the TAHC also will continue to require that breeding rams older than 6 months of age enter Texas with a negative test for brucellosis within 30 days prior to shipment. The brucellosis test results must be written on the certificate of veterinary inspection.




"Scrapie has been difficult to eradicate since it was first introduced into the U.S. in l947, because the disease develops slowly and, for months, the signs of illness aren't obvious. Although older animals can be exposed and develop infection, lambs and kids in the flock are most susceptible to the scrapie agent, called a prion protein," said Dr. Conger. "Infected ewes shed the prion in tissue and fluids associated with birthing and can expose many flockmates during the lambing season."




"It can take as long as 18 months for the disease to become noticeable in infected animals. Clinical signs include weight loss, lip smacking, tremors, loss of coordination, swaying or wool pulling," said Dr. Logan. "Also, until recently, there was no approved live animal test to confirm the visual diagnosis, because brain tissue was needed for laboratory confirmation. Now scrapie disease surveillance can be conducted with 'third eyelid testing.' In this procedure, anesthetic drops are placed in the animal's eye, and a tiny snippet of tissue is collected from underneath the eyelid. The tissue is then prepared for shipment to a diagnostic laboratory for testing. Gene testing can also identify animals that are naturally susceptible or resistant to the disease, too."




"If an animal on the farm or at the market shows clinical signs indicative of scrapie, TAHC regulations require that the animal be moved only under a restricted movement permit issued by the TAHC or a USDA representative," commented Dr. Logan. "Movement will be restricted to a site where the animal will be destroyed, tested and disposed of properly. When it is appropriate, the animal may be moved back to the flock of origin, where it will be held under restriction, while a diagnosis is made. If sick sheep or goats are identified at a slaughter plant, they will be condemned and removed from the food chain. Samples will be collected from the animals for diagnosis."




As part of the national eradication effort, the USDA is conducting routine, random scrapie testing across the country. In Texas each week, the federal agency purchases about 150 sheep and goats destined for slaughter. "Brain tissue is collected from each of the animals and forwarded to the National Veterinary Services Laboratory in Ames, Iowa," said Dr. Conger. "As of August 1, scrapie has not been detected in these 'randomly sampled' animals. Within a few months, results of this 'blind study' will be reported on a state-by-state basis, but cases will not be identified to a flock."




"We have, however, detected four infected Texas flocks during the past 15 months. In three herds, infection was found in flocks outside of Texas, and we traced animal movement to Texas. The infected flocks were found in Indiana, Oklahoma and California. We found the fourth flock by tracing movement out of one of the infected Texas flocks. Tracing disease movement is much like putting the pieces of the puzzle together until they fit," said Dr. Conger. "Of the four infected flocks in Texas, one has been depopulated and one is in a quarantine-monitoring program. Two of the flocks were recently disclosed as infected and flock management is still being decided."




"When scrapie infection is detected, we launch an epidemiological investigation to determine if the disease has been introduced into other flocks," said Dr. Conger. "The required ear tags and records will allow us to do a more thorough job in tracing an infected animal's movement from birth. This tracing is essential, if we are to eradicate scrapie."




Dr. Conger said the true prevalence of scrapie in the U.S. is not known, but only two countries are known to be free of the disease--Australia and New Zealand. The American Sheep Industry Association (ASI) in l998, declared scrapie as an important trade issue, estimating that the disease costs American farmers nearly $20 million yearly in lost export sales, extra disposal costs for dead sheep and lost productivity. Animal health officials and the sheep industry say scrapie can be eliminated in the U.S. by 2010. Disease eradication would be especially helpful to Texas producers, as the state ranks first in the nation for sheep and goat production, with more than 2.5 million head, according to the Texas Agricultural Statistics Service (TASS).




For more information regarding scrapie regulations, voluntary scrapie flock certification or to report clinical signs of the disease, contact the TAHC at 1-800-550-8242.








TSS










2013





TSE Policy



Test sheep peripheral tissues from animals infected with BSE and scrapie.



A workshop of international TSE experts held at Defra concluded that it is important to understand more about the possibility of mixed TSE infections in ruminants that could theoretically enter the food chain. Sheep or goats infected with both scrapie and BSE entering the food chain in the UK would risk further cases of vCJD. Little is known about the pathogenesis and therefore the human risk from such a mixed infection. Some experimental infections of sheep with a mixture of BSE and scrapie have been completed and the brains have been analysed. Brains are not consumed, but the peripheral tissues are. The aim of this project would be to analyse the peripheral tissues collected and archived in these experiments for the presence of BSE.



Oral transmission of L-type BSE to small ruminants



Oral transmissions use established methods. This project will demonstrate whether atypical L-type BSE (a disease that current evidence suggests may transmit to humans) can be acquired in small ruminants (SR) through feed and the environment. Tissues which would enter the food chain will be sampled at post mortem from animals of the appropriate age and tested for abnormal prion/infectivity










2012 atypical L-type BSE BASE California reports






Saturday, August 4, 2012



*** Final Feed Investigation Summary - California BSE Case - July 2012








SUMMARY REPORT CALIFORNIA BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY CASE INVESTIGATION JULY 2012





Summary Report BSE 2012



Executive Summary








Saturday, August 4, 2012



Update from APHIS Regarding Release of the Final Report on the BSE Epidemiological Investigation










Sunday, August 26, 2012



Susceptibility of young sheep to oral infection with bovine spongiform encephalopathy decreases significantly after weaning










Wednesday, January 18, 2012



BSE IN GOATS CAN BE MISTAKEN FOR SCRAPIE



February 1, 2012











The Limits of Test-Based Scrapie Eradication Programs in Goats






Fabien Corbière, Affiliation: UMR 1225 INRA-ENVT Interactions Hôtes Agents Pathogènes, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire, Toulouse, France


X Cécile Chauvineau-Perrin, Affiliation: ANSES, Laboratoire d’études et recherches caprines, Niort, France


X Caroline Lacroux, Affiliation: UMR 1225 INRA-ENVT Interactions Hôtes Agents Pathogènes, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire, Toulouse, France


X Séverine Lugan, Affiliation: UMR 1225 INRA-ENVT Interactions Hôtes Agents Pathogènes, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire, Toulouse, France


X Pierrette Costes, Affiliation: UMR 1225 INRA-ENVT Interactions Hôtes Agents Pathogènes, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire, Toulouse, France


X Myriam Thomas, Affiliation: ANSES, Laboratoire d’études et recherches caprines, Niort, France


X Isabelle Brémaud, Affiliation: ANSES, Laboratoire d’études et recherches caprines, Niort, France


X Christophe Chartier, Affiliation: ANSES, Laboratoire d’études et recherches caprines, Niort, France


X Francis Barillet, Affiliation: INRA, UR 631, Station d’Amélioration Génétique des Animaux, Castanet-Tolosan, France


X François Schelcher, Affiliation: UMR 1225 INRA-ENVT Interactions Hôtes Agents Pathogènes, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire, Toulouse, France


X Olivier Andréoletti mail





Abstract




Small ruminant post-mortem testing programs were initially designed for monitoring the prevalence of prion disease. They are now considered as a potential alternative to genetic selection for eradicating/controlling classical scrapie at population level. If such policy should be implemented, its success would be crucially dependent on the efficiency of the surveillance system used to identify infected flocks. In this study, we first determined the performance of post-mortem classical scrapie detection in eight naturally affected goat herds (total n = 1961 animals) according to the age at culling. These results provided us with necessary parameters to estimate, through a Monte Carlo simulation model, the performance of scrapie detection in a commercial population. According to this model, whatever the number of tests performed, post mortem surveillance will have limited success in identifying infected herds. These data support the contention that scrapie eradication programs relying solely on post mortem testing in goats will probably fail. Considering the epidemiological and pathological similarities of scrapie in sheep and goats, the efficiency of scrapie surveillance in both species is likely to be similar.





Citation: Corbière F, Chauvineau-Perrin C, Lacroux C, Lugan S, Costes P, et al. (2013) The Limits of Test-Based Scrapie Eradication Programs in Goats. PLoS ONE 8(1): e54911. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054911


Editor: Jason Bartz, Creighton University, United States of America


Received: September 17, 2012; Accepted: December 19, 2012; Published: January 23, 2013


Copyright: © 2013 Corbière et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Funding: This work was funded by GIS PRION grant 31B06134, by INRA grant AIP P00297, by the Poitou-Charentes region grants 04/RPC-A-103 and 05/RPC-A-13, by the EU FP7 ‘Goat BSE’ project CT-2006-36353 and EMIDA 2012 ‘Goat TSE free’ project. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.


* E-mail: o.andreoletti@envt.fr






snip...






Discussion





Our study involved a relatively large number of classical scrapie cases (n = 183) recruited from eight naturally infected herds. It therefore provided a solid basis for assessing the performances of the TSE tests and/or choice of target tissue for classical scrapie detection in goats. However, like all previous studies focusing on the performance of PrPSc based TSE detection assay, this approach suffers from an intrinsic pitfall, i.e. the absence of a gold-standard that would provide a definitive TSE status for each individual. Currently, only bioassay (with no species barrier) could be considered as a pertinent tool to establish/exclude TSE agent presence in a sample. However, considering the number of samples that should be tested in an experiment like this one, systematic bioassay testing of each tissue is not feasible. In that context, we cannot exclude that some of the animals involved in this study might have been inaccurately considered to be TSE negative.





Since their implementation in the EU and in North America, the rationale of TSE active surveillance systems in small ruminants has been debated; the number and age of tested animals, the choice of TSE screening tests and the choice of testing on posterior brainstem have been extensively discussed [10]. As anticipated from knowledge related to classical scrapie pathogenesis in small ruminants (late neuro-invasion during the incubation phase), our results demonstrate that the detection of TSE infected individuals would be significantly improved by using tonsil or mesenteric lymph node rather than posterior brainstem for PrPSc testing [7], [18]. The high concordance of the results obtained using a rapid PrPSc detection assay (Biorad TeSeE sheep/goat®) and a reference OIE confirmatory method (IHC) indicates that there is no technical limitation for developing a field TSE surveillance program based on PrPSc testing in lymphoid tissues.





At the population level, whatever the testing scenario (number of tests performed each year) the results of our simulation study also indicated that TSE active surveillance strategies based on PrPSc testing on tonsil rather than on posterior brainstem would allow the detection of a higher number of classical scrapie infected herds. However, the performance gain (between 2% and 10% of additional scrapie infected herd detected) would remain relatively limited and whatever the testing regimen the system would fail to detect 100% of the infected herds.





In addition, it must be considered that in a large number of countries, small ruminant TSE surveillance programs intend to monitor the prevalence of both classical and atypical scrapie [6], [19]. The lack of detectable PrPSc in the peripheral tissue of atypical scrapie infected individuals precludes the use of lymphoid tissues for atypical scrapie surveillance [5].





Therefore, considering the current limits of TSE detection tests, and under the hypothesis that the sole objective of TSE surveillance programs is to provide a global picture of TSE prevalence in the small ruminants populations the use of posterior brainstem for PrPSc remains the best compromise for TSE monitoring in field.





Over the last decade, the EU policy for long term TSE control and eradication in small ruminants has relied on the identification of infected herds and the selection of genetically resistant animals in both infected flocks and in the general population [20]. In sheep, the ARR PRP allele provides a strong but not absolute resistance to classical scrapie and BSE agent [21], [22]. The recent identification of PrP polymorphisms in goats that might provide a strong, if not absolute, resistance to TSE agent infection could also provide opportunities for genetic selection in that species [23]–[26]. The selection of the ARR allele is an efficient tool for disease control/eradication in classical scrapie infected flocks [20]. However, the sustainability of genetic selection to control and eradicate TSE in small ruminants is still disputed. The existence of TSE agents (like atypical scrapie) that can develop in ARR homozygote sheep and the potential loss of genetic variability in animal populations are the two main arguments used by people arguing against genetic selection. Eradication policy based on the post mortem PrPSc testing and the stamping out of infected herds/flocks, without genetic selection is therefore still given consideration as an alternative to breeding for resistance. Our results clearly demonstrate that over a year the random testing of 20 000 individuals in an 850 000 individuals population only allow the identification of a very limited proportion (12%) of infected herds.





The simulation models that we developed rely on the French goat population and breeding system. They cannot be directly inferred to scrapie surveillance in sheep. However all the critical parameters that were used for modelling scrapie in the goat population were similar to those reported in sheep. The age distribution of cases that we used in goat was comparable to the one described in susceptible PrP genotype sheep [27], [28]. The age at which PrPSc become detectable in the posterior brainstem in goat (as reported here) and in naturally scrapie infected ARQ/ARQ sheep were also comparable [15]. In addition, the estimates obtained with our model are consistent with those reported by Hopp et al. [29] when assessing the performance of TSE active surveillance in the Norwegian sheep population. Therefore, it is our opinion that the results obtained in this study are also pertinent for estimating the likely performances of the post mortem scrapie surveillance program in sheep.





TSE in small ruminants is mainly considered as an animal health issue. However, the uncertainties related to the capacity of other ruminant prions to cross species barriers [30] remain a concern for public health. Considering the results of our study and the capacity of TSE agents to persist in the environment, it can be concluded that a classical scrapie eradication policy that would solely rely on currently available TSE screening tests is unlikely to succeed.







Supporting Information





snip...see full text ;











Tuesday, November 02, 2010



IN CONFIDENCE



The information contained herein should not be disseminated further except on the basis of "NEED TO KNOW".



BSE - ATYPICAL LESION DISTRIBUTION (RBSE 92-21367) statutory (obex only) diagnostic criteria CVL 1992









2009 UPDATE ON ALABAMA AND TEXAS MAD COWS 2005 and 2006











Wednesday, January 18, 2012



Selection of Distinct Strain Phenotypes in Mice Infected by Ovine Natural Scrapie Isolates Similar to CH1641 Experimental Scrapie



Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology: February 2012 - Volume 71 - Issue 2 - p 140–147










Wednesday, February 16, 2011



IN CONFIDENCE



SCRAPIE TRANSMISSION TO CHIMPANZEES



IN CONFIDENCE









Sunday, December 12, 2010



EFSA reviews BSE/TSE infectivity in small ruminant tissues News Story 2 December 2010











Sunday, April 18, 2010



SCRAPIE AND ATYPICAL SCRAPIE TRANSMISSION STUDIES A REVIEW 2010











Thursday, December 23, 2010



Molecular Typing of Protease-Resistant Prion Protein in Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies of Small Ruminants, France, 2002-2009



Volume 17, Number 1 January 2011











Thursday, November 18, 2010



Increased susceptibility of human-PrP transgenic mice to bovine spongiform encephalopathy following passage in sheep










Monday, April 25, 2011



Experimental Oral Transmission of Atypical Scrapie to Sheep



Volume 17, Number 5-May 2011











Friday, February 11, 2011



Atypical/Nor98 Scrapie Infectivity in Sheep Peripheral Tissues











Thursday, March 29, 2012




atypical Nor-98 Scrapie has spread from coast to coast in the USA 2012




NIAA Annual Conference April 11-14, 2011San Antonio, Texas











Wednesday, April 4, 2012



20120402 - Breach of quarantine/Violation de la mise en quarantaine of an ongoing Scrapie investigation










Michigan and California have had a high spike in Goat Scrapie cases, compared to elsewhere ???







Tuesday, February 01, 2011



Sparse PrP-Sc accumulation in the placentas of goats with naturally acquired scrapie



(Figure 6) including five goat cases in FY 2008 that originated from the same herd in Michigan. This is highly unusual for goats, and I strenuously urge that there should be an independent investigation into finding the common denominator for these 5 goats in the same herd in Michigan with Scrapie. ...










Thursday, February 23, 2012



Atypical Scrapie NOR-98 confirmed Alberta Canada sheep January 2012











RESEARCH



Emerging Infectious Diseases • www.cdc.gov/eid • Vol. 17, No. 5, May 2011



Experimental Oral Transmission of Atypical Scrapie to Sheep



Marion M. Simmons, S. Jo Moore,1 Timm Konold, Lisa Thurston, Linda A. Terry, Leigh Thorne, Richard Lockey, Chris Vickery, Stephen A.C. Hawkins, Melanie J. Chaplin, and John Spiropoulos



To investigate the possibility of oral transmission of atypical scrapie in sheep and determine the distribution of infectivity in the animals’ peripheral tissues, we challenged neonatal lambs orally with atypical scrapie; they were then killed at 12 or 24 months. Screening test results were negative for disease-specifi c prion protein in all but 2 recipients; they had positive results for examination of brain, but negative for peripheral tissues. Infectivity of brain, distal ileum, and spleen from all animals was assessed in mouse bioassays; positive results were obtained from tissues that had negative results on screening. These fi ndings demonstrate that atypical scrapie can be transmitted orally and indicate that it has the potential for natural transmission and iatrogenic spread through animal feed. Detection of infectivity in tissues negative by current surveillance methods indicates that diagnostic sensitivity is suboptimal for atypical scrapie, and potentially infectious material may be able to pass into the human food chain.




SNIP...




Although we do not have epidemiologic evidence that supports the effi cient spread of disease in the fi eld, these data imply that disease is potentially transmissible under fi eld situations and that spread through animal feed may be possible if the current feed restrictions were to be relaxed. Additionally, almost no data are available on the potential for atypical scrapie to transmit to other food animal species, certainly by the oral route. However, work with transgenic mice has demonstrated the potential susceptibility of pigs, with the disturbing fi nding that the biochemical properties of the resulting PrPSc have changed on transmission (40). The implications of this observation for subsequent transmission and host target range are currently unknown.



How reassuring is this absence of detectable PrPSc from a public health perspective? The bioassays performed in this study are not titrations, so the infectious load of the positive gut tissues cannot be quantifi ed, although infectivity has been shown unequivocally. No experimental data are currently available on the zoonotic potential of atypical scrapie, either through experimental challenge of humanized mice or any meaningful epidemiologic correlation with human forms of TSE. However, the detection of infectivity in the distal ileum of animals as young as 12 months, in which all the tissues tested were negative for PrPSc by the currently available screening and confi rmatory diagnostic tests, indicates that the diagnostic sensitivity of current surveillance methods is suboptimal for detecting atypical scrapie and that potentially infectious material may be able to pass into the human food chain undetected.



Emerging Infectious Diseases • www.cdc.gov/eid • Vol. 17, No. 5, May 2011











why do we not want to do TSE transmission studies on chimpanzees $






5. A positive result from a chimpanzee challenged severly would likely create alarm in some circles even if the result could not be interpreted for man. I have a view that all these agents could be transmitted provided a large enough dose by appropriate routes was given and the animals kept long enough. Until the mechanisms of the species barrier are more clearly understood it might be best to retain that hypothesis.



snip...



R. BRADLEY










1: J Infect Dis 1980 Aug;142(2):205-8



Oral transmission of kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and scrapie to nonhuman primates.



Gibbs CJ Jr, Amyx HL, Bacote A, Masters CL, Gajdusek DC.



Kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease of humans and scrapie disease of sheep and goats were transmitted to squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) that were exposed to the infectious agents only by their nonforced consumption of known infectious tissues. The asymptomatic incubation period in the one monkey exposed to the virus of kuru was 36 months; that in the two monkeys exposed to the virus of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was 23 and 27 months, respectively; and that in the two monkeys exposed to the virus of scrapie was 25 and 32 months, respectively. Careful physical examination of the buccal cavities of all of the monkeys failed to reveal signs or oral lesions. One additional monkey similarly exposed to kuru has remained asymptomatic during the 39 months that it has been under observation.



snip...



The successful transmission of kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and scrapie by natural feeding to squirrel monkeys that we have reported provides further grounds for concern that scrapie-infected meat may occasionally give rise in humans to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.



PMID: 6997404











Recently the question has again been brought up as to whether scrapie is transmissible to man. This has followed reports that the disease has been transmitted to primates. One particularly lurid speculation (Gajdusek 1977) conjectures that the agents of scrapie, kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and transmissible encephalopathy of mink are varieties of a single "virus". The U.S. Department of Agriculture concluded that it could "no longer justify or permit scrapie-blood line and scrapie-exposed sheep and goats to be processed for human or animal food at slaughter or rendering plants" (ARC 84/77)" The problem is emphasised by the finding that some strains of scrapie produce lesions identical to the once which characterise the human dementias"




Whether true or not. the hypothesis that these agents might be transmissible to man raises two considerations. First, the safety of laboratory personnel requires prompt attention. Second, action such as the "scorched meat" policy of USDA makes the solution of the acrapie problem urgent if the sheep industry is not to suffer grievously.




snip...




76/10.12/4.6











Nature. 1972 Mar 10;236(5341):73-4.



Transmission of scrapie to the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis).



Gibbs CJ Jr, Gajdusek DC.


Nature 236, 73 - 74 (10 March 1972); doi:10.1038/236073a0


Transmission of Scrapie to the Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis)


C. J. GIBBS jun. & D. C. GAJDUSEK


National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland





SCRAPIE has been transmitted to the cynomolgus, or crab-eating, monkey (Macaca fascicularis) with an incubation period of more than 5 yr from the time of intracerebral inoculation of scrapie-infected mouse brain. The animal developed a chronic central nervous system degeneration, with ataxia, tremor and myoclonus with associated severe scrapie-like pathology of intensive astroglial hypertrophy and proliferation, neuronal vacuolation and status spongiosus of grey matter. The strain of scrapie virus used was the eighth passage in Swiss mice (NIH) of a Compton strain of scrapie obtained as ninth intracerebral passage of the agent in goat brain, from Dr R. L. Chandler (ARC, Compton, Berkshire).

















IT is of my opinion, that the OIE and the USDA et al, are the soul reason, and responsible parties, for Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy TSE prion diseases, including typical and atypical BSE, typical and atypical Scrapie, and all strains of CWD, and human TSE there from, spreading around the globe.




I have lost all confidence of this organization as a regulatory authority on animal disease, and consider it nothing more than a National Trading Brokerage for all strains of animal TSE, just to satisfy there commodity. AS i said before, OIE should hang up there jock strap now, since it appears they will buckle every time a country makes some political hay about trade protocol, commodities and futures. IF they are not going to be science based, they should do everyone a favor and dissolve there organization.




JUST because of low documented human body count with nvCJD and the long incubation periods, the lack of sound science being replaced by political and corporate science in relations with the fact that science has now linked some sporadic CJD with atypical BSE and atypical scrapie, and the very real threat of CWD being zoonosis, I believed the O.I.E. has failed terribly and again, I call for this organization to be dissolved. ...







Tuesday, July 17, 2012



O.I.E. BSE, CWD, SCRAPIE, TSE PRION DISEASE Final Report of the 80th General Session, 20 - 25 May 2012










Thursday, December 20, 2012



OIE GROUP RECOMMENDS THAT SCRAPE PRION DISEASE BE DELISTED AND SAME OLD BSe WITH BOVINE MAD COW DISEASE























































TSS