SCRAPIE USA

My Photo
Name:
Location: BACLIFF, Texas, United States

My mother was murdered by what I call corporate and political homicide i.e. FOR PROFIT! she died from a rare phenotype of CJD i.e. the Heidenhain Variant of Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease i.e. sporadic, simply meaning from unknown route and source. I have simply been trying to validate her death DOD 12/14/97 with the truth. There is a route, and there is a source. There are many here in the USA. WE must make CJD and all human TSE, of all age groups 'reportable' Nationally and Internationally, with a written CJD questionnaire asking real questions pertaining to route and source of this agent. Friendly fire has the potential to play a huge role in the continued transmission of this agent via the medical, dental, and surgical arena. We must not flounder any longer. ...TSS

Friday, May 10, 2013

Evidence of effective scrapie transmission via colostrum and milk in sheep

Evidence of effective scrapie transmission via colostrum and milk in sheep


BMC Veterinary Research 2013, 9:99 doi:10.1186/1746-6148-9-99


Timm Konold (Timm.Konold@ahvla.gsi.gov.uk) S Jo Moore (J.Moore@murdoch.edu.au) Susan J Bellworthy (susanjbellworthy@btinternet.com) Linda A Terry (lindaannterry@gmail.com) Leigh Thorne (Leigh.Thorne@ahvla.gsi.gov.uk) Andrew Ramsay (Andrew.Ramsay@ahvla.gsi.gov.uk) F Javier Salguero (Javier.Salguero@ahvla.gsi.gov.uk) Marion M Simmons (Marion.Simmons@ahvla.gsi.gov.uk) Hugh A Simmons (Hugh.Simmons@ahvla.gsi.gov.uk)


ISSN 1746-6148 Article type Research article Submission date 21 February 2013 Acceptance date 30 April 2013 Publication date 7 May 2013 Article URL http://www.biomedcentral.com/1746-6148/9/99


Like all articles in BMC journals, this peer-reviewed article can be downloaded, printed and distributed freely for any purposes (see copyright notice below).


Articles in BMC journals are listed in PubMed and archived at PubMed Central. For information about publishing your research in BMC journals or any BioMed Central journal, go to http://www.biomedcentral.com/info/authors/


BMC Veterinary Research


© 2013 Konold et al.


This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Evidence of effective scrapie transmission via colostrum and milk in sheep


Timm Konold1* * Corresponding author Email: Timm.Konold@ahvla.gsi.gov.uk S Jo Moore2,3 Email: J.Moore@murdoch.edu.au Susan J Bellworthy2 Email: susanjbellworthy@btinternet.com Linda A Terry2 Email: lindaannterry@gmail.com Leigh Thorne4 Email: Leigh.Thorne@ahvla.gsi.gov.uk Andrew Ramsay4 Email: Andrew.Ramsay@ahvla.gsi.gov.uk F Javier Salguero1 Email: Javier.Salguero@ahvla.gsi.gov.uk Marion M Simmons1 Email: Marion.Simmons@ahvla.gsi.gov.uk Hugh A Simmons1 Email: Hugh.Simmons@ahvla.gsi.gov.uk


1 Specialist Scientific Support Department, Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, New Haw Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, UK


2 Formerly – Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, UK


3 School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Murdoch University, South Street, Murdoch, WA 6150, Australia


4 TSE Department, Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, UK


Abstract


Background


Evidence for scrapie transmission from VRQ/VRQ ewes to lambs via milk was first reported in 2008 but in that study there were concerns that lateral transmission may have contributed to the high transmission rate observed since five control lambs housed with the milk recipients also became infected. This report provides further information obtained from two follow-up studies, one where milk recipients were housed separately after milk consumption to confirm the validity of the high scrapie transmission rate via milk and the second to assess any difference in infectivity from colostrum and subsequent milk. Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) was also used to detect prion protein in milk samples as a comparison with the infectivity data and extended to milk samples from ewes without a VRQ allele.


Results


Seven pairs of lambs fed colostrum and milk individually from seven scrapie-affected sheep (pre-clinical or clinical) presented with disease-associated prion protein, PrPd, in rectal lymphoid tissue at 4–5 months of age. Five further pairs of lambs fed either colostrum or subsequent milk from five pre-clinical scrapie-affected sheep equally presented with PrPd in lymphoid tissue by 9 months of age. Nine sheep were lost due to intercurrent diseases but all remaining milk or colostrum recipients, including those in the original study with the lateral transmission controls, developed clinical signs of scrapie from 19 months of age and scrapie was confirmed by brain examination. Unexposed control sheep totalling 19 across all three studies showed no evidence of infection.


Scrapie PrP was amplified repeatedly by PMCA in all tested milk samples from scrapieaffected VRQ/VRQ sheep, and in one scrapie-affected ARQ/ARQ sheep. By contrast, milk


samples from five VRQ/VRQ and 11 ARQ/ARQ scrapie-free sheep did not have detectable scrapie PrP on repeated tests.


Conclusions


Feeding of milk from scrapie-affected sheep results in a high transmission rate in VRQ/VRQ sheep and both colostrum and milk transmit scrapie. Detection of scrapie prion protein in individual milk samples from scrapie-affected ewes confirms PMCA as a valuable in vitro test.


Keywords


Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, Scrapie, Sheep, Milk, Colostrum, Transmission, PMCA, Prion protein, RAMALT, Copper









Tuesday, April 30, 2013 Transmission of classical scrapie via goat milk


Veterinary Record2013;172:455 doi:10.1136/vr.f2613




Letters




Ruminant Health






Transmission of classical scrapie via goat milk






Timm Konold1, Hugh A. Simmons1, Paul R. Webb1, Peter J. Bellerby1, Steve A. C. Hawkins1 and Lorenzo González2




+ Author Affiliations




1AHVLA – Weybridge, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB 2– Lasswade, Pentlands Science Park, Bush Loan, Penicuik, Midlothian EH26 0PZ e-mail: timm.konold@ahvla.gsi.gov.uk




FOLLOWING reports that ovine scrapie (referred to here and subsequently as classical scrapie) can be transmitted from dams to lambs via milk (Konold and others 2008, Ligios and others 2011), we subsequently carried out a study to investigate whether caprine scrapie could also be transmitted via milk, using material collected from a field outbreak of scrapie in goats in the UK (González and others 2009). Lambs were selected as milk recipients from a closed flock of known scrapie-free status (Simmons and others 2009) because an assured scrapie-free source of goats was not available.




Due to the lack of published information about the susceptibility of sheep to caprine scrapie, a pilot study was conducted to determine whether sheep were susceptible to …




snip...




The study is still ongoing but the current results confirm that the scrapie agent can also be transmitted via milk from goats. This reinforces the validity of the decision by the European Parliament in 2009 to prohibit the feeding of milk or milk products from classical scrapie-infected flocks or herds to small ruminants in general.




Timm Konold, Hugh A. Simmons,




please see full text @












Sunday, February 10, 2013




Scientific Opinion on the risk of transmission of classical scrapie via in vivo derived embryo transfer in ovine animals










Saturday, February 11, 2012




PrPSc Detection and Infectivity in Semen from Scrapie-Infected Sheep












Wednesday, January 18, 2012




BSE IN GOATS CAN BE MISTAKEN FOR SCRAPIE




February 1, 2012












Envt.18: Mother to Offspring Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease






Candace K. Mathiason,† Amy Nalls, Kelly Anderson, Jeanette Hayes-Klug, Jenny G. Powers, Nicholas J. Haley and Edward A. Hoover






Colorado State University; Fort Collins, CO USA†Presenting author; Email: ckm@lamar.colostate.edu






We have developed a new cervid model in small Asian muntjac deer (Muntiacus reevesi) to study potential modes of vertical transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) from mother to offspring. Eight of eight (8/8) muntjac doe orally infected with CWD tested PrPCWD lymphoid positive by four months post infection. Ten fawns were born to these CWD-infected doe— four of the fawns were viable, five were non-viable and one was a first trimester fetus harvested from a CWD-infected doe euthanized at end-stage disease. The viable fawns have been monitored for CWD infection by immunohistochemistry and sPMCA performed on serial tonsil and rectal lymphoid tissue biopsies. PrPCWD has been detected in one fawn by IHC as early as 40 days of age. Moreover, sPMCA performed on rectal lymphoid tissue has yielded positive results on another fawn at ten days of age. In addition, sPMCA assays have demonstrated amplifiable prions in fetal placental or spleen tissue of three non-viable fawns and mammary tissue of the dams.






Additional pregnancy related fluids and tissues from the doe as well as tissue from the nonviable fawns are currently being probed for the presence of CWD. In summary, we have employed the muntjac deer model, to demonstrate for the first time the transmission of CWD from mother to offspring. These studies provide the foundation to investigate the mechanisms and pathways of maternal prion transfer.








===========================








PPo3-18: A Possible Case of Maternal Transmission of the BSE Agent within Captive Cheetah Affected with Feline Spongiform Encephalopathy






Anna Bencsik, Sabine Debeer, Thierry Petit and Thierry Baron






Afssa; Unité ATNC; Lyon, France; Zoo de la Palmyre; Les Mathes, France






Key words: BSE, FSE, vertical transmission






Introduction. Feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE) is considered to be related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). It has been reported in domestic cats as well as in captive wild cats including cheetahs, first in the United Kingdom (UK) and then in other European countries. In France, several cases were described in cheetahs either imported from UK or born in France. Here we report details of two other FSE cases in captive cheetah. These cases are of particular interest since the 2nd case of FSE in a cheetah born in France, appears most likely due to maternal transmission.1






Results. Complete PrPd study showed the close likeness between the two cheetah cases. The TgOvPrP4 mouse brains infected with cattle BSE and cheetah FSE revealed similar vacuolar lesion profiles, PrPd brain mapping with occurrence of typical florid plaques.






Materials and Methods. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), pathological form of PrP(PrPd) was analyzed in the brains and peripheral organs of these two cheetahs. Transmission studies to the TgOvPrP4 mouse line were also performed, for comparison with the transmission of cattle BSE. Lesion profiles of the infected transgenic mice were analyzed as well as type and brain distribution of PrPd.






Conclusion. Collectively, these data indicate that both FSE cases harbor the same strain of agent as the cattle BSE agent. Because this is most probably a case of maternal transmission of the disease, this new observation may have some impact on our knowledge of vertical transmission of BSE agent-linked TSEs such as in human variant Creutzfeldt Jakob disease.






References






1. Bencsik et al. PLoS One 2009; 4:6929.






=========================








PPo3-40: Mother to Offspring Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease






Candace K. Mathiason, Amy V. Nalls, Kelly Anderson, Jeanette Hayes-Klug, Nicholas Haley and Edward A. Hoover






Colorado State University, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Fort Collins, CO USA






Key words: Chronic wasting disease, vertical transmission, muntjac deer






We have developed a new cervid model in small Asian muntjac deer (Muntiacus reevesi) to study potential modes of vertical transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) from mother to offspring. Eight of eight (8/8) muntjac doe orally infected with CWD tested PrPCWD lymphoid positive by 4 months post infection. Six fawns were born to these CWD-infected doe. Six fawns were born to 6 CWD-infected doe; 4 of the fawns were non-viable. The viable fawns have been monitored for CWD infection by immunohistochemistry and sPMCA performed on serial tonsil and rectal lymphoid tissue biopsies. PrPCWD has been detected in one fawn as early as 40 days of age. Moreover, sPMCA performed on rectal lymphoid tissue has yield positive results on another fawn at 10 days of age. In addition, sPMCA assays have also demonstrated amplifiable prions in maternal placental (caruncule) and mammary tissue of the dam.






Additional pregnancy related fluids and tissues from the doe as well as tissue from the nonviable fawns are currently being probed for the presence of CWD. In summary, we have employed the muntjac deer model, to demonstrate for the first time the transmission of CWD from mother to offspring. These studies provide the foundation to investigate the mechanisms and pathways of maternal prion transfer.






PRION 2011






landesbioscience.com






International Prion Congress: From agent to diseaseSeptember 8–11, 2010Salzburg, Austria
















Saturday, December 3, 2011




Isolation of Prion with BSE Properties from Farmed Goat Volume 17, Number 12—December 2011














PRION 2010
































Friday, December 23, 2011




Detection of PrPres in Genetically Susceptible Fetuses from Sheep with Natural Scrapie












Monday, November 22, 2010




SHEEP WITH MASTITIS TRANSMIT INFECTIOUS PRIONS THROUGH THE MILK http://scrapie-usa.blogspot.com/2010/11/sheep-with-mastitis-transmit-infectious.html




Saturday, April 12, 2008




Evidence of scrapie transmission via milk












Wednesday, January 18, 2012




Selection of Distinct Strain Phenotypes in Mice Infected by Ovine Natural Scrapie Isolates Similar to CH1641 Experimental Scrapie




Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology: February 2012 - Volume 71 - Issue 2 - p 140–147












Wednesday, February 16, 2011




IN CONFIDENCE




SCRAPIE TRANSMISSION TO CHIMPANZEES




IN CONFIDENCE












Sunday, December 12, 2010




EFSA reviews BSE/TSE infectivity in small ruminant tissues News Story 2 December 2010












Sunday, April 18, 2010




SCRAPIE AND ATYPICAL SCRAPIE TRANSMISSION STUDIES A REVIEW 2010












Thursday, December 23, 2010




Molecular Typing of Protease-Resistant Prion Protein in Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies of Small Ruminants, France, 2002-2009




Volume 17, Number 1 January 2011












Thursday, November 18, 2010




Increased susceptibility of human-PrP transgenic mice to bovine spongiform encephalopathy following passage in sheep












Monday, April 25, 2011




Experimental Oral Transmission of Atypical Scrapie to Sheep




Volume 17, Number 5-May 2011












Friday, February 11, 2011




Atypical/Nor98 Scrapie Infectivity in Sheep Peripheral Tissues












Thursday, March 29, 2012




atypical Nor-98 Scrapie has spread from coast to coast in the USA 2012




NIAA Annual Conference April 11-14, 2011San Antonio, Texas












Wednesday, April 4, 2012




20120402 - Breach of quarantine/Violation de la mise en quarantaine of an ongoing Scrapie investigation












Michigan and California have had a high spike in Goat Scrapie cases, compared to elsewhere ???






Tuesday, February 01, 2011




Sparse PrP-Sc accumulation in the placentas of goats with naturally acquired scrapie




(Figure 6) including five goat cases in FY 2008 that originated from the same herd in Michigan. This is highly unusual for goats, and I strenuously urge that there should be an independent investigation into finding the common denominator for these 5 goats in the same herd in Michigan with Scrapie. ...












Thursday, February 23, 2012




Atypical Scrapie NOR-98 confirmed Alberta Canada sheep January 2012












RESEARCH




Emerging Infectious Diseases • www.cdc.gov/eid • Vol. 17, No. 5, May 2011




Experimental Oral Transmission of Atypical Scrapie to Sheep




Marion M. Simmons, S. Jo Moore,1 Timm Konold, Lisa Thurston, Linda A. Terry, Leigh Thorne, Richard Lockey, Chris Vickery, Stephen A.C. Hawkins, Melanie J. Chaplin, and John Spiropoulos




To investigate the possibility of oral transmission of atypical scrapie in sheep and determine the distribution of infectivity in the animals’ peripheral tissues, we challenged neonatal lambs orally with atypical scrapie; they were then killed at 12 or 24 months. Screening test results were negative for disease-specifi c prion protein in all but 2 recipients; they had positive results for examination of brain, but negative for peripheral tissues. Infectivity of brain, distal ileum, and spleen from all animals was assessed in mouse bioassays; positive results were obtained from tissues that had negative results on screening. These fi ndings demonstrate that atypical scrapie can be transmitted orally and indicate that it has the potential for natural transmission and iatrogenic spread through animal feed. Detection of infectivity in tissues negative by current surveillance methods indicates that diagnostic sensitivity is suboptimal for atypical scrapie, and potentially infectious material may be able to pass into the human food chain.




SNIP...




Although we do not have epidemiologic evidence that supports the effi cient spread of disease in the fi eld, these data imply that disease is potentially transmissible under fi eld situations and that spread through animal feed may be possible if the current feed restrictions were to be relaxed. Additionally, almost no data are available on the potential for atypical scrapie to transmit to other food animal species, certainly by the oral route. However, work with transgenic mice has demonstrated the potential susceptibility of pigs, with the disturbing fi nding that the biochemical properties of the resulting PrPSc have changed on transmission (40). The implications of this observation for subsequent transmission and host target range are currently unknown.




How reassuring is this absence of detectable PrPSc from a public health perspective? The bioassays performed in this study are not titrations, so the infectious load of the positive gut tissues cannot be quantifi ed, although infectivity has been shown unequivocally. No experimental data are currently available on the zoonotic potential of atypical scrapie, either through experimental challenge of humanized mice or any meaningful epidemiologic correlation with human forms of TSE. However, the detection of infectivity in the distal ileum of animals as young as 12 months, in which all the tissues tested were negative for PrPSc by the currently available screening and confi rmatory diagnostic tests, indicates that the diagnostic sensitivity of current surveillance methods is suboptimal for detecting atypical scrapie and that potentially infectious material may be able to pass into the human food chain undetected.




Emerging Infectious Diseases • www.cdc.gov/eid • Vol. 17, No. 5, May 2011










why do we not want to do TSE transmission studies on chimpanzees $






5. A positive result from a chimpanzee challenged severly would likely create alarm in some circles even if the result could not be interpreted for man. I have a view that all these agents could be transmitted provided a large enough dose by appropriate routes was given and the animals kept long enough. Until the mechanisms of the species barrier are more clearly understood it might be best to retain that hypothesis.




snip...




R. BRADLEY










1: J Infect Dis 1980 Aug;142(2):205-8




Oral transmission of kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and scrapie to nonhuman primates.




Gibbs CJ Jr, Amyx HL, Bacote A, Masters CL, Gajdusek DC.




Kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease of humans and scrapie disease of sheep and goats were transmitted to squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) that were exposed to the infectious agents only by their nonforced consumption of known infectious tissues. The asymptomatic incubation period in the one monkey exposed to the virus of kuru was 36 months; that in the two monkeys exposed to the virus of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was 23 and 27 months, respectively; and that in the two monkeys exposed to the virus of scrapie was 25 and 32 months, respectively. Careful physical examination of the buccal cavities of all of the monkeys failed to reveal signs or oral lesions. One additional monkey similarly exposed to kuru has remained asymptomatic during the 39 months that it has been under observation.




snip...




The successful transmission of kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and scrapie by natural feeding to squirrel monkeys that we have reported provides further grounds for concern that scrapie-infected meat may occasionally give rise in humans to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.




PMID: 6997404










Recently the question has again been brought up as to whether scrapie is transmissible to man. This has followed reports that the disease has been transmitted to primates. One particularly lurid speculation (Gajdusek 1977) conjectures that the agents of scrapie, kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and transmissible encephalopathy of mink are varieties of a single "virus". The U.S. Department of Agriculture concluded that it could "no longer justify or permit scrapie-blood line and scrapie-exposed sheep and goats to be processed for human or animal food at slaughter or rendering plants" (ARC 84/77)" The problem is emphasised by the finding that some strains of scrapie produce lesions identical to the once which characterise the human dementias"




Whether true or not. the hypothesis that these agents might be transmissible to man raises two considerations. First, the safety of laboratory personnel requires prompt attention. Second, action such as the "scorched meat" policy of USDA makes the solution of the acrapie problem urgent if the sheep industry is not to suffer grievously.




snip...




76/10.12/4.6










Nature. 1972 Mar 10;236(5341):73-4.




Transmission of scrapie to the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis).




Gibbs CJ Jr, Gajdusek DC.




Nature 236, 73 - 74 (10 March 1972); doi:10.1038/236073a0




Transmission of Scrapie to the Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis)




C. J. GIBBS jun. & D. C. GAJDUSEK




National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland




SCRAPIE has been transmitted to the cynomolgus, or crab-eating, monkey (Macaca fascicularis) with an incubation period of more than 5 yr from the time of intracerebral inoculation of scrapie-infected mouse brain. The animal developed a chronic central nervous system degeneration, with ataxia, tremor and myoclonus with associated severe scrapie-like pathology of intensive astroglial hypertrophy and proliferation, neuronal vacuolation and status spongiosus of grey matter. The strain of scrapie virus used was the eighth passage in Swiss mice (NIH) of a Compton strain of scrapie obtained as ninth intracerebral passage of the agent in goat brain, from Dr R. L. Chandler (ARC, Compton, Berkshire).
















Thursday, December 20, 2012




OIE GROUP RECOMMENDS THAT SCRAPE PRION DISEASE BE DELISTED AND SAME OLD BSe WITH BOVINE MAD COW DISEASE












Monday, November 30, 2009




USDA AND OIE COLLABORATE TO EXCLUDE ATYPICAL SCRAPIE NOR-98 ANIMAL HEALTH CODE














Wednesday, April 24, 2013




Chimpanzees Released After 30 Years Of Testing, Brace Yourself For Smiles














THE OIE, USDA, CFIA, DEFRA, MAFF, $$$ POLICY OF SPREADING THE TSE PRION DISEASE GLOBALLY, THE LEGAL TRADING OF ATYPICAL AND POSSIBLY TYPICAL SCRAPIE AS A COMMODITY. ...








absolutely insane, crazy, absurd, NEGLIGENT, take your pick. ...






Tuesday, April 30, 2013


Transmission of classical scrapie via goat milk


Veterinary Record2013;172:455 doi:10.1136/vr.f2613








TSS