SCRAPIE USA

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Location: BACLIFF, Texas, United States

My mother was murdered by what I call corporate and political homicide i.e. FOR PROFIT! she died from a rare phenotype of CJD i.e. the Heidenhain Variant of Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease i.e. sporadic, simply meaning from unknown route and source. I have simply been trying to validate her death DOD 12/14/97 with the truth. There is a route, and there is a source. There are many here in the USA. WE must make CJD and all human TSE, of all age groups 'reportable' Nationally and Internationally, with a written CJD questionnaire asking real questions pertaining to route and source of this agent. Friendly fire has the potential to play a huge role in the continued transmission of this agent via the medical, dental, and surgical arena. We must not flounder any longer. ...TSS

Wednesday, May 25, 2016

USDA APHIS National Scrapie TSE Prion Eradication Program April 2016 Monthly Report Prion 2016 Tokyo Update

National Scrapie Eradication Program

 

April 2016 Monthly Report

 

Fiscal Year 2016

 

U.S. Department of Agriculture

 

Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service

 

Veterinary Services

 

Surveillance, Preparedness and Response Services

 

Sheep and Goat Health Program

 

May 15, 2016

 

snip...

 

Surveillance

 

Regulatory Scrapie Slaughter Surveillance (RSSS)

 

RSSS started April 1, 2003. It is a targeted slaughter surveillance program which is designed to identify infected flocks. Samples have been collected from 503,973 animals since April 1, 2003. There have been 479 NVSL confirmed positive animals* (471 classical cases and 8 Nor98-like cases) since the beginning of RSSS. As of April 30, 2016, 21,371 samples have been collected in FY 2016, 16,854 from sheep and 4,517 from goats.

 

As of April 30, 2016, one black-faced sheep* tested positive for scrapie in FY 2016. The weighted percentage of samples that have tested positive for each face color** from FY 2003 through FY 2016 is depicted in Chart 3a. In November 2013, administrative units within APHIS Veterinary Services reorganized from 2 Regions to 6 Districts (Figure 6). The distribution of sheep and goat populations by District is depicted in Chart 4a. The number of animals collected for FY 2016 by District where collected is shown in Chart 4b. A monthly comparison of RSSS collections by fiscal year is displayed in Chart 5. Chart 6is a retrospective 6-month rolling average of the percent positive, black-faced sheep sampled at RSSS collection sites.

 

* RSSS positives are reported based on collection date and may have been confirmed after April 30, 2016.

 

** White, black and mottled face color sheep are weighted based on population. White faced sheep have the highest weight, so when the uncommon white face positive sheep is found it will cause this statistic to increase.

 

snip...

 

Positive Cases and Infected/Source Flocks

 

Positive Scrapie Cases*

 

Thirteen positive cases have been reported in FY 2016. Eight of the cases were from a source flock that was designated in October because of an RSSS positive animal reported in September 2015. Location of the cases is shown in Table 1 and Figure 1, and distribution by face-color (sheep) and type (goats) is shown in Table 2.

 

The 2 positive goat cases found in FY 2015 increased the number of confirmed cases in goats since FY 2002 to 41 (Figure 2). No goats have tested positive in FY 2016.

 

Infected and Source Flocks

 

As of April 30, 2016, there were four flocks with an open infected or source status (Figure 3). Two infected and three source flocks have been designated in FY 2016 (Figure 4); two flocks have completed clean-up plans and have been released (Figure 5). New infected and source statuses from FY 1997 to FY 2016 are depicted in Chart 2.

 

* Samples collected between October 1, 2015 and April 30, 2016 and confirmed by May 15, 2016.

 


 

IL-13 Transmission of prions to non human-primates: Implications for human populations

 

Jean-Philippe Deslys, Emmanuel E. Comoy

 

CEW, Institute of Emerging Diseases and Innovative Therapies (iMETI), Division of Prions and Related Diseases (SEPIA), Fontenay-aux-Roses, France

 

Prion diseases are the unique neurodegenerative proteinopathies reputed to be transmissible under field conditions since decades. The transmission of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) to humans evidenced that an animal prion disease might be zoonotic under appropriate conditions. Contrarily, in the absence of obvious (epidemiological or experimental) elements supporting a transmission or genetic predispositions, prion diseases, like the other proteinopathies, are reputed to occur spontaneously (atypical animal prion strains, sporadic CJD summing 80 % of human prion cases).

 

Non-human primate models provided the first evidences supporting the transmissibility of human prion strains and the zoonotic potential of BSE. Among them, cynomolgus macaques brought major information for BSE risk assessment for human health1, according to their phylogenetic proximity to humans and extended lifetime. We used this model to assess the risk of primary (oral) and secondary (transfusional) risk of BSE, and also the zoonotic potential of other animal prion diseases from bovine, ovine and cervid origins even after very long silent incubation periods.

 

We recently observed the direct transmission of a natural classical scrapie isolate to macaque after a 10-year silent incubation period, with features similar to some reported for human cases of sporadic CJD, albeit requiring fourfold' . longer incubation than BSE2. Scrapie, as recently evoked in humanized mice3, is the third potentially zoonotic prion disease (with BSE and L-type BSE4), thus questioning the origin of human sporadic cases. We also observed hidden prions transmitted by blood transfusion in primate which escape to the classical diagnostic methods and extend the field of healthy carriers. We will present an updated panorama of our different long-term transmission studies and discuss the implications on risk assessment of animal prion diseases for human health and of the status of healthy carrier5.

 

1. Chen, C. C. & Wang, Y. H. Estimation of the Exposure of the UK Population to the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Agent through Dietary Intake During the Period 1980 to 1996. PLoS One 9, e94020 (2014).

 

2. Comoy, E. E. et al. Transmission of scrapie prions to primate after an extended silent incubation period. Sci Rep 5, 11573 (2015).

 

3. Cassard, H. et al. Evidence for zoonotic potential of ovine scrapie prions. Nat Commun 5, 5821-5830 (2014).

 

4. Comoy, E. E. et al. Atypical BSE (BASE) transmitted from asymptomatic aging cattle to a primate. PLoS One 3, e3017 (2008).

 

5. Gill O. N. et al. Prevalent abnormal prion protein in human appendixes after bovine spongiform encephalopathy epizootic: large scale survey. BMJ. 347, f5675 (2013).

 

Curriculum Vitae

 

Dr. Deslys co-authored more than one hundred publications in international scientific journals on main aspects of applied prion research (diagnostic, decontamination techniques, risk assessment, and therapeutic approaches in different experimental models) and on underlying pathological mechanisms. He studied the genetic of the first cases of iatrogenic CJD in France. His work has led to several patents including the BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy) diagnostic test most widely used worldwide. He also wrote a book on mad cow disease which can be downloaded here for free (http://www.neuroprion.org/pdf_docs/documentation/madcow_deslys.pdf). His research group is Associate Laboratory to National Reference Laboratory for CJD in France and has high security level microbiological installations (NeuroPrion research platform) with different experimental models (mouse, hamster, macaque). The primate model of BSE developed by his group with cynomolgus macaques turned out to mimick remarkably well the human situation and allows to assess the primary (oral) and secondary (transfusional) risks linked to animal and human prions even after very long silent incubation periods. For several years, his interest has extended to the connections between PrP and Alzheimer and the prion mechanisms underlying neurodegenerative diseases. He is coordinating the NeuroPrion international association (initially european network of excellence now open to all prion researchers).

 

- 59-

 

P-088 Transmission of experimental CH1641-like scrapie to bovine PrP overexpression mice

 

Kohtaro Miyazawa1, Kentaro Masujin1, Hiroyuki Okada1, Yuichi Matsuura1, Takashi Yokoyama2

 

1Influenza and Prion Disease Research Center, National Institute of Animal Health, NARO, Japan; 2Department of Planning and General Administration, National Institute of Animal Health, NARO

 

Introduction: Scrapie is a prion disease in sheep and goats. CH1641-lke scrapie is characterized by a lower molecular mass of the unglycosylated form of abnormal prion protein (PrpSc) compared to that of classical scrapie. It is worthy of attention because of the biochemical similarities of the Prpsc from CH1641-like and BSE affected sheep. We have reported that experimental CH1641-like scrapie is transmissible to bovine PrP overexpression (TgBoPrP) mice (Yokoyama et al. 2010). We report here the further details of this transmission study and compare the biological and biochemical properties to those of classical scrapie affected TgBoPrP mice.

 

Methods: The details of sheep brain homogenates used in this study are described in our previous report (Yokoyama et al. 2010). TgBoPrP mice were intracerebrally inoculated with a 10% brain homogenate of each scrapie strain. The brains of mice were subjected to histopathological and biochemical analyses.

 

Results: Prpsc banding pattern of CH1641-like scrapie affected TgBoPrP mice was similar to that of classical scrapie affected mice. Mean survival period of CH1641-like scrapie affected TgBoPrP mice was 170 days at the 3rd passage and it was significantly shorter than that of classical scrapie affected mice (439 days). Lesion profiles and Prpsc distributions in the brains also differed between CH1641-like and classical scrapie affected mice.

 

Conclusion: We succeeded in stable transmission of CH1641-like scrapie to TgBoPrP mice. Our transmission study demonstrates that CH 1641-like scrapie is likely to be more virulent than classical scrapie in cattle.

 

 WS-02

 

Scrapie in swine: A diagnostic challenge

 

Justin J Greenlee1, Robert A Kunkle1, Jodi D Smith1, Heather W. Greenlee2

 

1National Animal Disease Center, US Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, United States; 2Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine

 

A naturally occurring prion disease has not been recognized in swine, but the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy does transmit to swine by experimental routes. Swine are thought to have a robust species barrier when exposed to the naturally occurring prion diseases of other species, but the susceptibility of swine to the agent of sheep scrapie has not been thoroughly tested.

 

Since swine can be fed rations containing ruminant derived components in the United States and many other countries, we conducted this experiment to test the susceptibility of swine to U.S. scrapie isolates by intracranial and oral inoculation. Scrapie inoculum was a pooled 10% (w/v) homogenate derived from the brains of clinically ill sheep from the 4th passage of a serial passage study of the U.S scrapie agent (No. 13-7) through susceptible sheep that were homozygous ARQ at prion protein residues 136, 154, and 171, respectively. Pigs were inoculated intracranially (n=19) with a single 0.75 ml dose or orally (n=24) with 15 ml repeated on 4 consecutive days. Necropsies were done on a subset of animals at approximately six months post inoculation (PI), at the time the pigs were expected to reach market weight. Remaining pigs were maintained and monitored for clinical signs of TSE until study termination at 80 months PI or when removed due to intercurrent disease (primarily lameness). Brain samples were examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC), western blot (WB), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Brain tissue from a subset of pigs in each inoculation group was used for bioassay in mice expressing porcine PRNP.

 

At six-months PI, no evidence of scrapie infection was noted by any diagnostic method. However, at 51 months of incubation or greater, 5 animals were positive by one or more methods: IHC (n=4), WB (n=3), or ELISA (n=5). Interestingly, positive bioassay results were obtained from all inoculated groups (oral and intracranial; market weight and end of study).

 

Swine inoculated with the agent of scrapie by the intracranial and oral routes do not accumulate abnormal prion protein (PrPSc) to a level detectable by IHC or WB by the time they reach typical market age and weight. However, strong support for the fact that swine are potential hosts for the agent of scrapie comes from positive bioassay from both intracranially and orally inoculated pigs and multiple diagnostic methods demonstrating abnormal prion protein in intracranially inoculated pigs with long incubation times.

 

Curriculum Vitae

 

Dr. Greenlee is Research Veterinary Medical Officer in the Virus and Prion Research Unit at the National Animal Disease Center, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. He applies his specialty in veterinary anatomic pathology to focused research on the intra- and interspecies transmission of prion diseases in livestock and the development of antemortem diagnostic assays for prion diseases. In addition, knockout and transgenic mouse models are used to complement ongoing experiments in livestock species. Dr. Greenlee has publications in a number of topic areas including prion agent decontamination, effects of PRNP genotype on susceptibility to the agent of sheep scrapie, characterization of US scrapie strains, transmission of chronic wasting disease to cervids and cattle, features of H-BSE associated with the E211 K polymorphism, and the development of retinal assessment for antemortem screening for prion diseases in sheep and cattle. Dr. Greenlee obtained his DVM degree and completed the PhD/residency program in Veterinary Pathology at Iowa State University. He is a Diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists.

 


 

 >>>A naturally occurring prion disease has not been recognized in swine, but the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy does transmit to swine by experimental routes. <<<

 

for anyone interested, please see old studies here ;

 

IN CONFIDENCE

 

EXPERIMENTAL PORCINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY 1. CMO should be aware that a pig inoculated experimentally (ic, iv, and ip) with BSE brain suspension has after 15 months developed an illness, now confirmed as a spongiform encephalopathy. This is the first ever description of such a disease in a pig, although it seems there ar no previous attempts at experimental inoculation with animal material. The Southwood group had thought igs would not be susceptible. Most pigs are slaughtered when a few weeks old but there have been no reports of relevant neurological illness in breeding sows or other elderly pigs.

 

...see full text ;

 


 

IN CONFIDENCE

 

So it is plausible pigs could be preclinically affected with BSE but since so few are allowed to reach adulthood this has not been recognised through clinical disease. ...

 


 

snip...

 

CONFIDENTIAL EXPERIMENTAL PORCINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY

 

PLEASE NOTE, these old BSE Inquiry links take a while to open with the wayback machine, so be patient. ...tss

 

Title: Experimental Intracerebral and Oral Inoculation of Scrapie to Swine: Preliminary Report In the United States, feeding of ruminant by-products to ruminants is prohibited, but feeding of ruminant materials to swine and poultry still occurs. The potential for swine to have access to scrapie-contaminated feedstuffs exists, but the potential for swine to serve as a host for replication/accumulation of the agent of scrapie is unknown. The purpose of this study was to perform oral and intracerebral inoculation of the U.S. scrapie agent to determine the potential of swine as a host for the scrapie agent and their clinical susceptibility.

 

snip...

 

IN CONFIDENCE EXPERIMENTAL PORCINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY 1. CMO should be aware that a pig inoculated experimentally (ic, iv, and ip) with BSE brain suspension has after 15 months developed an illness, now confirmed as a spongiform encephalopathy. This is the first ever description of such a disease in a pig, although it seems there ar no previous attempts at experimental inoculation with animal material. The Southwood group had thought igs would not be susceptible. Most pigs are slaughtered when a few weeks old but there have been no reports of relevant neurological illness in breeding sows or other elderly pigs. ...see full text ;

 


 

we cannot rule out the possibility that unrecognised subclinical spongiform encephalopathy could be present in British pigs though there is no evidence for this: only with parenteral/implantable pharmaceuticals/devices is the theoretical risk to humans of sufficient concern to consider any action.

 


 

May I, at the outset, reiterate that we should avoid dissemination of papers relating to this experimental finding to prevent premature release of the information. ...

 


 

3. It is particularly important that this information is not passed outside the Department, until Ministers have decided how they wish it to be handled. ...

 


 

But it would be easier for us if pharmaceuticals/devices are not directly mentioned at all. ...

 


 

Our records show that while some use is made of porcine materials in medicinal products, the only products which would appear to be in a hypothetically ''higher risk'' area are the adrenocorticotrophic hormone for which the source material comes from outside the United Kingdom, namely America China Sweden France and Germany. The products are manufactured by Ferring and Armour. A further product, ''Zenoderm Corium implant'' manufactured by Ethicon, makes use of porcine skin - which is not considered to be a ''high risk'' tissue, but one of its uses is described in the data sheet as ''in dural replacement''. This product is sourced from the United Kingdom.....

 


 

snip...

 

It was not until . . . August 1990, that the result from the pig persuaded both SEAC and us to change our view and to take out of pig rations any residual infectivity that might have arisen from the SBOs.

 


 

4.303 The minutes of the meeting record that: It was very difficult to draw conclusions from one experimental result for what may happen in the field. However it would be prudent to exclude specified bovine offals from the pig diet. Although any relationship between BSE and the finding of a spongiform encephalopathy in cats had yet to be demonstrated, the fact that this had occurred suggested that a cautious view should be taken of those species which might be susceptible. The 'specified offals' of bovines should therefore be excluded from the feed of all species. 17

 


 

7 OF 10 LITTLE PIGGIES WENT ON TO DEVELOP BSE;

 

1: J Comp Pathol. 2000 Feb-Apr; 122(2-3): 131-43. Related Articles, Links Click here to read

 

The neuropathology of experimental bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the pig.

 

Ryder SJ, Hawkins SA, Dawson M, Wells GA. Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, Woodham Lane, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey, KT15 3NB, UK.

 

In an experimental study of the transmissibility of BSE to the pig, seven of 10 pigs, infected at 1-2 weeks of age by multiple-route parenteral inoculation with a homogenate of bovine brain from natural BSE cases developed lesions typical of spongiform encephalopathy. The lesions consisted principally of severe neuropil vacuolation affecting most areas of the brain, but mainly the forebrain. In addition, some vacuolar change was identified in the rostral colliculi and hypothalamic areas of normal control pigs. PrP accumulations were detected immunocytochemically in the brains of BSE-infected animals. PrP accumulation was sparse in many areas and its density was not obviously related to the degree of vacuolation. The patterns of PrP immunolabelling in control pigs differed strikingly from those in the infected animals. PMID: 10684682 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 


 

Transgenic mice expressing porcine prion protein resistant to classical scrapie but susceptible to sheep bovine spongiform encephalopathy and atypical scrapie.

 

Emerg Infect Dis. 2009 Aug; [Epub ahead of print]

 


 

snip...

 

Friday, August 21, 2015

 

Porcine prion protein amyloid or mad pig disease PSE Porcine Spongiform Encephalopathy ?

 


 


 

In the US, scrapie is reported primarily in sheep homozygous for 136A/171Q (AAQQ) and the disease phenotype is similar to that seen with experimental strain CH1641.

 


 


 

Monday, April 11, 2016

 

*** DECLARATION OF EXTRAORDINARY EMERGENCY DUE TO A FOREIGN ANIMAL DISEASE TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY TSE PRION CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD IN THE UNITED STATES AND NORTH AMERICA ?

 

Diagnosing TSE Prion disease in the USA, and the ‘’REDACTED’’ factor on sound atypical Scrapie TSE Prion testing by the USDA APHIS et al, and 10 years of FOIA request

 


 

Monday, April 11, 2016

 

 ***DECLARATION OF EXTRAORDINARY EMERGENCY DUE TO A FOREIGN ANIMAL DISEASE TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY TSE PRION CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD IN THE UNITED STATES AND NORTH AMERICA ? ***

 

 MAD SHEEP OF MAD RIVER VALLEY AND THE USDA ‘FALSE FLAG’ WAR ON THAT FAMILY, AND WHY TODAY A DECLARATION OF EXTRAORDINARY EMERGENCY DUE TO A FOREIGN ANIMAL DISEASE TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY TSE PRION CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD IN THE UNITED STATES AND NORTH AMERICA MUST BE CALLED FOR !!!

 


 

 Friday, February 20, 2015

 

 ***APHIS Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Appeal Mouse Bio-Assays 2007-00030-A Sheep Imported From Belgium and the Presence of TSE Prion Disease Kevin Shea to Singeltary 2015

 


 

 Friday, August 21, 2015

 

Porcine prion protein amyloid or mad pig disease PSE Porcine Spongiform Encephalopathy ?

 


 


 

CJD/BSE (aka madcow) Human/Animal TSE’s--U.S.--Submission To Scientific Advisors and Consultants Staff January 2001 Meeting (short version)

 

Freas, William

 

From: Terry S. Singeltary Sr. [flounder@wt.net]

 

Sent: Monday, January 08,2001 3:03 PM

 

TO: freas@CBS5055530.CBER.FDA.GOV

 

Subject: CJD/BSE (aka madcow) Human/Animal TSE’s--U.S.--Submission To Scientific Advisors and Consultants Staff January 2001 Meeting (short version)

 

CJD/BSE (aka madcow) Human/Animal TSE’s--U.S.--Submission To Scientific Advisors and Consultants Staff January 2001 Meeting (short version)

 

Greetings again Dr. Freas and Committee Members,

 

I wish to submit the following information to the Scientific Advisors and Consultants Staff 2001 Advisory Committee (short version).

 

I understand the reason of having to shorten my submission, but only hope that you add it to a copy of the long version, for members to take and read at their pleasure, (if cost is problem, bill me, address below). So when they realize some time in the near future of the 'real' risks i speak of from human/animal TSEs and blood/surgical products. I cannot explain the 'real' risk of this in 5 or 10 minutes at some meeting, or on 2 or 3 pages, but will attempt here:

 

remember AIDS/HIV, 'no problem to heterosexuals in the U.S.? no need to go into that, you know of this blunder:

 

DO NOT make these same stupid mistakes again with human/animal TSE's aka MADCOW DISEASE. I lost my Mom to hvCJD, and my neighbor lost his Mother to sCJD as well (both cases confirmed). I have seen many deaths, from many diseases. I have never seen anything as CJD, I still see my Mom laying helpless, jerking tremendously, and screaming "God, what's wrong with me, why can't I stop this". I still see this, and will never forget. Approximately 10 weeks from 1st of symptoms to death. This is what drives me. I have learned more in 3 years about not only human/animal TSE's but the cattle/rendering/feeding industry/government than i ever wished to.

 

I think you are all aware of CJD vs vCJD, but i don't think you all know the facts of human/animal TSE's as a whole, they are all very very similar, and are all tied to the same thing, GREED and MAN.

 

I am beginning to think that the endless attempt to track down and ban, potential victims from known BSE Countries from giving blood will be futile. You would have to ban everyone on the Globe eventually? AS well, I think we MUST ACT SWIFTLY to find blood test for TSE's, whether it be blood test, urine test, .eyelid test, anything at whatever cost, we need a test FAST.

 

DO NOT let the incubation time period of these TSEs fool you.

 

To think of Scrapie as the prime agent to compare CJD, but yet overlook the Louping-ill vaccine event in 1930's of which 1000's of sheep where infected by scrapie from a vaccine made of scrapie infected sheep brains, would be foolish. I acquired this full text version of the event which was recorded in the Annual Congress of 1946 National Vet. Med. Ass. of Great Britain and Ireland. from the BVA and the URL is posted in my (long version).

 

U.S.A. should make all human/animal TSE's notifiable at all ages, with requirements for a thorough surveillance and post-mortem examinations free of charge, if you are serious about eradicating this horrible disease in man and animal.

 

There is histopathology reports describing o florid plaques" in CJD victims in the USA and some of these victims are getting younger. I have copies of such autopsies, there has to be more. PLUS, sub-clinical human TSE's will most definitely be a problem.

 

THEN think of vaccineCJD in children and the bovine tissues used in the manufacturing process, think of the FACT that this agent surviving 6OO*C. PNAS -- Brown et al. 97 (7): 3418 scrapie agent live at 600*C

 

Then think of the CONFIDENTIAL documents of what was known of human/animal TSE and vaccines in the mid to late 80s, it was all about depletion of stock, to hell with the kids, BUT yet they knew. To think of the recall and worry of TSE's from the polio vaccine, (one taken orally i think?), but yet neglect to act on the other potential TSE vaccines (inoculations, the most effective mode to transmit TSEs) of which thousands of doses were kept and used, to deplete stockpile, again would be foolish.

 

--Oral polio; up to 1988, foetal calf serum was used from UK and New Zealand (pooled); since 1988 foetal calf serum only from New Zealand. Large stocks are held.

 

--Rubella; bulk was made before 1979 from foetal calf serum from UK and New Zealand. None has been made as there are some 15 years stock.

 

--Diphtheria; UK bovine beef muscle and ox heart is used but since the end of 1988 this has been sourced from Eire. There are 1,250 litres of stock.

 

--Tetanus; this involves bovine material from the UK mainly Scottish. There are 21,000 litres of stock.

 

--Pertussis; uses bovine material from the UK. There are 63,000 litres of stock. --They consider that to switch to a non-UK source will take a minimum of 6-18 months and to switch to a non-bovine source will take a minimum of five years.

 

3. XXXXXXXXXXX have measles, mumps, MMR, rubella vaccines. These are sourced from the USA and the company believes that US material only is used.

 

89/2.14/2.1

 

============

 

BSE3/1 0251

 

4. XXXXXXXXXXX have a measles vaccine using bovine serum from the UK. there are 440,000 units of stock. They have also got MMR using bovine serum from the UK.

 

5. XXXXXXXXXXX have influenza, rubella, measles,' MMR vaccines likely to be used in children. Of those they think that only MMR contains bovine material which is probably a French origin.

 

6. XXXXXXXXXXX have diphtheria/tetanus and potasses on clinical trial. hese use veal material, some of which has come from the UK and has been ade by XXXXXXXXXXX (see above).

 

I have documents of imports from known BSE Countries, of ferments, whole blood, antiallergenic preparations,

 

2

 

human blood plasma, normal human blood sera, human immune blood sera, fetal bovine serum, and other blood fractions not elsewhere specified or included, imported glands, catgut, vaccines for both human/animal, as late as 1998. Let us not forget about PITUITARY EXTRACT. This was used to help COWS super ovulate. This tissue was considered to be of greatest risk of containing BSE and consequently transmitting the disease.

 

ANNEX 6

 

MEETING HELD ON 8 JUNE 1988 TO DISCUSS THE IMPLICATIONS OF BSE TO BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS CONTAINING BOVINE - EXTRACTED MATERIAL

 

How much of this was used in the U.S.?

 

Please do not keep making the same mistakes; 'Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence'.

 

What are the U.S. rules for importing and manufacturing vaccines, medicines and medical devices?

 

Does the U.S.A. allow sourcing of raw material of ruminants from the U.S.A.?

 

U.S. cattle, what kind of guarantee can you give for serum or tissue donor herds? . The U.S. rendering system would easily amplify T.S.E.'s:

 

Have we increased the stability of the system (improved heat treatments) since the EU SSC report on the U.S.A. was published in july 2000?

 

What is done to avoid cross-contaminations in the U.S.A.?

 

How can the U.S. control absence of cross-contaminations of animal TSE's when pig and horse MBM and even deer and elk are allowed in ruminant feed, as well as bovine blood? I sadly think of the rendering and feeding policy before the Aug. 4, 1997 'partial' feed ban, where anything went, from the city police horse, to the circus elephant, i will not mention all the scrapie infected sheep. I am surprised that we have not included man 'aka soyent green'. It is a disgusting industry and nothing more than greed fuels it.

 

When will the U.S.. start real surveillance of the U.S. bovine population (not passive, this will not work)?

 

When will U.S. start removing SRMs?

 

Have they stopped the use of pneumatic stunners in the U.S.?

 

If so, will we stop it in all U.S. abattoirs or only in those abattoirs exporting to Europe?

 

If not, WHY NOT?

 

same questions for removal of SRM in the U.S.A., or just for export?

 

If not, WHY NOT?

 

How do we now sterilize surgical/dental instruments in the U.S.A.?

 

Where have we been sourcing surgical catgut?

 

(i have copies of imports to U.S., and it would floor you) hen will re-usable surgical instruments be banned?

 

'Unregulated "foods" such as 'nutritional supplements' containing various extracts from ruminants, whether imported or derived from

 

3

 

US cattle/sheep/cervids ("antler velvet" extracts!) should be forbidden or at least very seriously regulated. (neighbors Mom, whom also died from CJD, had been taking bovine based supplement, which contained brain, eye, and many other bovine/ovine tissues for years, 'IPLEX').

 

What is the use of banning blood or tissue donors from Germany, France, etc... when the U.S.A. continues exposing cattle, sheep and people to SRM, refuses to have a serious feed ban, refuses to do systematic BSE-surveillance?

 

The FDA should feel responsible for the safety of what people eat, prohibit the most dangerous foods, not only prohibit a few more donors - the FDA should be responsible for the safe sourcing of medical devices, not only rely on banning donors "from Europe", The 'real' risks are here in the U.S. as well, and nave been for some time.

 

We must not forget the studies that have proven infectivity in blood from TSE's.

 

The Lancet, November 9, 1985

 

Sir, --Professor Manuelidis and his colleagues (Oct 19, p896) report transmission to animals of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) from the buffy coat from two patients. We also transmitted the disease from, whole blood samples of a patient (and of mice) infected with CJD.l Brain, Cornea, and urine from this patient were also infectious, and the clinicopathological findings2 are summarised as follows.

 

snip...

 

Samples,were taken aseptically at necropsy. 10% crude homogenates of brain and cornea in saline, whole blood (after crushing a clot), and untreated CSF and urine were innoculated intracerebrally into CFl strain mice (20 ul per animal). Some mice showed emaciation, bradykinesia, rigidity of the body and tail, and sometimes tremor after long incubation periods. Tissues obtained after the animal died (or was killed) were studied histologically (table). Animals infected by various inocula showed common pathological changes, consisting of severe spongiform changes, glial proliferation, and a moderate loss of nerve cells. A few mice inoculated with brain tissue or urine had the same amyloid plaques found in patients and animals with CJD.3

 

snip...

 

Department of Neuropathology,. Neurological Institute, Faculty of Medicine, Kyushu University, Fukuoka812, Japan JUN TATEISHI

 

(full text-long version)

 

and

 

CWD and transmission to man will be no different than other TSE's.

 

"Clearly, it is premature to draw firm conclusions about CWD passing naturally into humans, cattle and sheep, but the present results suggest that CWD transmissions to humans would be as limited by PrP incompatibility as transmissions of BSE or sheep scrapie to humans. Although there is no evidence that sheep scrapie has affected humans, it is likely that BSE has

 

4

 

caused variant CJD in 74 people (definite and probable variant CJD cases to date according to the UK CJD Surveillance Unit). Given the presumably large number of people exposed to BSE infectivity, the susceptibility of humans may still be very low compared with cattle, which would be consistent with the relatively inefficient conversion of human PrP-sen by PrPBSE. Nonetheless, since humans have apparently been infected by BSE, it would seem prudent to take reasonable measures to limit exposure of humans (as well as sheep and cattle) to CWD infectivity as has been recommended for other animal TSEs,"

 

G.J. Raymond1, A. Bossers2, L.D. Raymond1, K.I. O'Rourke3, L.E. McHolland4, P.K. Bryant III4, M.W. Miller5, E.S. Williams6, M. Smits2 and B. Caughey1,7

 

or more recently transmission of BSE to sheep via whole blood Research letters Volume 356, Number 9234 16 September 2000

 

Transmission of BSE by blood transfusion in sheep

 

Lancet 2000; 356: 999 – 1000

 

F Houston, J D Foster, Angela Chong, N Hunter, C J Bostock

 

See Commentary

 

"We have shown that it is possible to transmit bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) to a sheep by transfusion with whole blood taken from another sheep during the symptom-free phase of an experimental BSE infection. BSE and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in human beings are caused by the same infectious agent, and the sheep-BSE experimental model has a similar pathogenesis to that of human vCJD. Although UK blood transfusions are leucodepleted--a possible protective measure against any risk from blood transmission-- this report suggests that blood donated by symptom-free vCJD-infected human beings may represent a risk of spread of vCJD infection among the human population of the UK."

 

"The demonstration that the new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) is caused by the same agent that causes bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle1 has raised concerns that blood from human beings in the symptom-free stages of vCJD could transmit infection to recipients of blood transfusions (full text long version)"

 

and...

 

"The large number of cases (1040), temporal clustering of the outbreaks (15 in the first 6 months of 1997), the high in-flock incidence, and the exceptional involvement of goats (390 cases), suggested an accidental infection. The source of the epidemic might have been TSE-contaminated meat and bonemeal, but eight flocks had never been fed any commercial feedstuff. Infection might have risen from the use of a formol-inactivated vaccine against contagious agalactia prepared by a single laboratory with brain and mammary gland homogenates of sheep infected with Mycoplasma agalactiae. Although clinical signs of TSE in the donor sheep have not been found, it is possible that one or more of them were harbouring the

 

5

 

infectious agent. Between 1995 and 1996, this vaccine was given subcutaneously to 15 of the affected flocks (to one flock in 1994) ; in these animals the disease appeared between 23 and 35 months after vaccination. No information is available for herd 13 because it was made up of stolen animals. Sheep from the remaining three flocks (1-3, figure) did not receive the vaccine, thus suggesting a naturally occurring disease.’’ (again, full text long version).

 

IN SHORT, please do under estimate this data and or human/animal TSE's including CWD in the U.S.A.

 

A few last words, please.

 

The cattle industry would love to have us turn our focus to CWD and forget about our own home grown TSE in Bovines. This would be easy to do. Marsh's work was from downer cattle feed, NOT downer deer/elk feed. This has been proven.

 

DO NOT MAKE THAT MISTAKE.

 

There should be NO LESS THAN 1,000,000 tests for BSE/TSE ' in 2001 for U.S.A. French are testing 20,000 a week. The tests are available. Why wait until we stumble across a case from passive surveillance, by then it is to late. IF we want the truth, this is a must???

 

United States Total ,Bovine Brain Submissions by State,

 

May 10 ,1990 thru October 31, 2000

 

Total 11,700

 

FROM 1.5 BILLION HEAD OF CATTLE since 1990 ???

 

with same feeding and rendering practices as that of U.K. for years and years, same scrapie infected sheep used in feed, for years and years, 950 scrapie infect FLOCKS in the U.S. and over 20 different strains of scrapie known to date. (hmmm, i am thinking why there is not a variant scrapie, that is totally different than all the rest)? just being sarcastic.

 

with only PARTIAL FEED BAN implemented on Aug. 4, 1997??? (you really need to reconsider that blood meal etc. 'TOTAL BAN')

 


 

AND PLEASE FOR GODS SAKE, STOP saying vCJD victims are the only ones tied to this environmental death sentence. "PROVE IT". It's just not true. The 'CHOSEN ONES' are not the only ones dying because of this man-made death sentence. When making regulations for human health from human/animal TSEs, you had better include ALL human TSE's, not just vCJD. Do NOT underestimate sporadic CJD with the 'prehistoric' testing available to date. This could be a deadly mistake. Remember, sCJD kills much faster from 1st onset of symptoms to death, and hvCJD is the fastest. Could it just be a higher titre of infectivity, or route or source, or all three?

 

Last, but not least. The illegal/legal harvesting of body parts and tissues will come back to haunt you. Maybe not morally, but due to NO background checks and human TSEs, again it will continue to spread.

 

Stupidity, Ignorance and Greed is what fuels this disease. You must stop all of this, and ACT AT ONCE...

 

Sent: Monday, January 08,2001 3:03 PM

 

TO: freas@CBS5055530.CBER.FDA.GOV

 

FDA CJD BSE TSE Prion Scientific Advisors and Consultants Staff January 2001 Meeting Singeltary Submission

 

2001 FDA CJD TSE Prion Singeltary Submission

 


 

2001 FDA CJD TSE Prion Singeltary Submission

 


 

 April 22, 2016

 

Scrapie Confirmed in a Hartley County Sheep

 

AUSTIN - Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC) officials have confirmed scrapie in a Hartley County ewe. The ewe was tested by TAHC after the owner reported signs of weight loss and lack of coordination to their local veterinarian. The premises was quarantined and a flock plan for monitoring is being developed by the TAHC and USDA.

 

"The TAHC is working closely with the flock owner, sharing all of the options for disease eradication," said Dr. David Finch, TAHC Region 1 Director. "We are thankful the producer was proactive in identifying a problem and seeking veterinary help immediately."

 

Texas leads the nation in sheep and goat production. Since 2008, there have been no confirmed cases of scrapie in Texas. The last big spike in Texas scrapie cases was in 2006 when nine infected herds were identified and the last herd was released from restrictions in 2013.

 

According to USDA regulations, Texas must conduct adequate scrapie surveillance by collecting a minimum of 598 sheep samples annually. Since USDA slaughter surveillance started in FY 2003, the percent of cull sheep found positive for scrapieat slaughter (once adjusted for face color) has decreased 90 percent.

 

Scrapie is the oldest known transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, and under natural conditions only sheep and goats are known to be affected by scrapie. It is a fatal disease that affects the central nervous system of sheep and goats. It is not completely understood how scrapie is passed from one animal to the next and apparently healthy sheep infected with scrapie can spread the disease. Sheep and goats are typically infected as young lambs or kids, though adult sheep and goats can become infected.

 

The most effective method of scrapie prevention is to maintain a closed flock. Raising replacement ewes, purchasing genetically resistant rams and ewes,or buying from a certified-free scrapie flock are other options to reduce the risk of scrapie. At this time the resistant genetic markers in goats have not been identified, therefore it is important to maintain your sheep and goat herds separately.

 

The incubation period for Scrapie is typically two to five years. Producers should record individual identification numbers and the seller's premise identification number on purchase and sales records. These records must be maintained for a minimum of five years.

 

Producers should notify the Texas Animal Health Commission (800-550-8242) or the USDA-Austin Office (512-383-2400) if they have an adult sheep or goat with neurologic signs such as incoordination, behavioral changes, or intense itching with wool loss. Producers may order scrapie identification tags by calling 866-873-2824. For more information, please visit our website at:

 


 

###

 


 

Texas Scrapie Confirmed in a Hartley County Sheep where CWD was detected in a Mule Deer, was there a link to the two ???

 

Sunday, May 22, 2016

 

TEXAS CWD DEER BREEDERS PLEA TO GOVERNOR ABBOTT TO CIRCUMVENT TPWD SOUND SCIENCE TO LET DISEASE SPREAD

 


 

Prion. 10:S15-S21. 2016 ISSN: 1933-6896 printl 1933-690X online

 

Taylor & Francis

 

Prion 2016 Animal Prion Disease Workshop Abstracts

 

WS-01: Prion diseases in animals and zoonotic potential

 

Juan Maria Torres a, Olivier Andreoletti b, J uan-Carlos Espinosa a. Vincent Beringue c. Patricia Aguilar a,

 

Natalia Fernandez-Borges a. and Alba Marin-Moreno a

 

"Centro de Investigacion en Sanidad Animal ( CISA-INIA ). Valdeolmos, Madrid. Spain; b UMR INRA -ENVT 1225 Interactions Holes Agents Pathogenes. ENVT. Toulouse. France: "UR892. Virologie lmmunologie MolécuIaires, Jouy-en-Josas. France

 

Dietary exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) contaminated bovine tissues is considered as the origin of variant Creutzfeldt Jakob (vCJD) disease in human. To date, BSE agent is the only recognized zoonotic prion. Despite the variety of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE) agents that have been circulating for centuries in farmed ruminants there is no apparent epidemiological link between exposure to ruminant products and the occurrence of other form of TSE in human like sporadic Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease (sCJD). However, the zoonotic potential of the diversity of circulating TSE agents has never been systematically assessed. The major issue in experimental assessment of TSEs zoonotic potential lies in the modeling of the ‘species barrier‘, the biological phenomenon that limits TSE agents’ propagation from a species to another. In the last decade, mice genetically engineered to express normal forms of the human prion protein has proved essential in studying human prions pathogenesis and modeling the capacity of TSEs to cross the human species barrier.

 

To assess the zoonotic potential of prions circulating in farmed ruminants, we study their transmission ability in transgenic mice expressing human PrPC (HuPrP-Tg). Two lines of mice expressing different forms of the human PrPC (129Met or 129Val) are used to determine the role of the Met129Val dimorphism in susceptibility/resistance to the different agents.

 

These transmission experiments confirm the ability of BSE prions to propagate in 129M- HuPrP-Tg mice and demonstrate that Met129 homozygotes may be susceptible to BSE in sheep or goat to a greater degree than the BSE agent in cattle and that these agents can convey molecular properties and neuropathological indistinguishable from vCJD. However homozygous 129V mice are resistant to all tested BSE derived prions independently of the originating species suggesting a higher transmission barrier for 129V-PrP variant.

 

Transmission data also revealed that several scrapie prions propagate in HuPrP-Tg mice with efficiency comparable to that of cattle BSE. While the efficiency of transmission at primary passage was low, subsequent passages resulted in a highly virulent prion disease in both Met129 and Val129 mice. Transmission of the different scrapie isolates in these mice leads to the emergence of prion strain phenotypes that showed similar characteristics to those displayed by MM1 or VV2 sCJD prion. These results demonstrate that scrapie prions have a zoonotic potential and raise new questions about the possible link between animal and human prions.

 


 

Research Project: TRANSMISSION, DIFFERENTIATION, AND PATHOBIOLOGY OF TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES

 

Title: Transmission of scrapie prions to primate after an extended silent incubation period

 

Authors

 

item Comoy, Emmanuel - item Mikol, Jacqueline - item Luccantoni-Freire, Sophie - item Correia, Evelyne - item Lescoutra-Etchegaray, Nathalie - item Durand, Valérie - item Dehen, Capucine - item Andreoletti, Olivier - item Casalone, Cristina - item Richt, Juergen item Greenlee, Justin item Baron, Thierry - item Benestad, Sylvie - item Hills, Bob - item Brown, Paul - item Deslys, Jean-Philippe -

 

Submitted to: Scientific Reports Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal Publication Acceptance Date: May 28, 2015 Publication Date: June 30, 2015 Citation: Comoy, E.E., Mikol, J., Luccantoni-Freire, S., Correia, E., Lescoutra-Etchegaray, N., Durand, V., Dehen, C., Andreoletti, O., Casalone, C., Richt, J.A., Greenlee, J.J., Baron, T., Benestad, S., Brown, P., Deslys, J. 2015. Transmission of scrapie prions to primate after an extended silent incubation period. Scientific Reports. 5:11573.

 

Interpretive Summary: The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (also called prion diseases) are fatal neurodegenerative diseases that affect animals and humans. The agent of prion diseases is a misfolded form of the prion protein that is resistant to breakdown by the host cells. Since all mammals express prion protein on the surface of various cells such as neurons, all mammals are, in theory, capable of replicating prion diseases. One example of a prion disease, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE; also called mad cow disease), has been shown to infect cattle, sheep, exotic undulates, cats, non-human primates, and humans when the new host is exposed to feeds or foods contaminated with the disease agent. The purpose of this study was to test whether non-human primates (cynomologous macaque) are susceptible to the agent of sheep scrapie. After an incubation period of approximately 10 years a macaque developed progressive clinical signs suggestive of neurologic disease. Upon postmortem examination and microscopic examination of tissues, there was a widespread distribution of lesions consistent with a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. This information will have a scientific impact since it is the first study that demonstrates the transmission of scrapie to a non-human primate with a close genetic relationship to humans. This information is especially useful to regulatory officials and those involved with risk assessment of the potential transmission of animal prion diseases to humans. Technical Abstract: Classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (c-BSE) is an animal prion disease that also causes variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. Over the past decades, c-BSE's zoonotic potential has been the driving force in establishing extensive protective measures for animal and human health.

 

*** In complement to the recent demonstration that humanized mice are susceptible to scrapie, we report here the first observation of direct transmission of a natural classical scrapie isolate to a macaque after a 10-year incubation period. Neuropathologic examination revealed all of the features of a prion disease: spongiform change, neuronal loss, and accumulation of PrPres throughout the CNS.

 

*** This observation strengthens the questioning of the harmlessness of scrapie to humans, at a time when protective measures for human and animal health are being dismantled and reduced as c-BSE is considered controlled and being eradicated.

 

*** Our results underscore the importance of precautionary and protective measures and the necessity for long-term experimental transmission studies to assess the zoonotic potential of other animal prion strains.

 


 

2015

 

O.05: Transmission of prions to primates after extended silent incubation periods: Implications for BSE and scrapie risk assessment in human populations

 

Emmanuel Comoy, Jacqueline Mikol, Valerie Durand, Sophie Luccantoni, Evelyne Correia, Nathalie Lescoutra, Capucine Dehen, and Jean-Philippe Deslys Atomic Energy Commission; Fontenay-aux-Roses, France

 

Prion diseases (PD) are the unique neurodegenerative proteinopathies reputed to be transmissible under field conditions since decades. The transmission of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) to humans evidenced that an animal PD might be zoonotic under appropriate conditions. Contrarily, in the absence of obvious (epidemiological or experimental) elements supporting a transmission or genetic predispositions, PD, like the other proteinopathies, are reputed to occur spontaneously (atpical animal prion strains, sporadic CJD summing 80% of human prion cases). Non-human primate models provided the first evidences supporting the transmissibiity of human prion strains and the zoonotic potential of BSE. Among them, cynomolgus macaques brought major information for BSE risk assessment for human health (Chen, 2014), according to their phylogenetic proximity to humans and extended lifetime. We used this model to assess the zoonotic potential of other animal PD from bovine, ovine and cervid origins even after very long silent incubation periods.

 

*** We recently observed the direct transmission of a natural classical scrapie isolate to macaque after a 10-year silent incubation period,

 

***with features similar to some reported for human cases of sporadic CJD, albeit requiring fourfold long incubation than BSE. Scrapie, as recently evoked in humanized mice (Cassard, 2014),

 

***is the third potentially zoonotic PD (with BSE and L-type BSE),

 

***thus questioning the origin of human sporadic cases. We will present an updated panorama of our different transmission studies and discuss the implications of such extended incubation periods on risk assessment of animal PD for human health.

 

===============

 

***thus questioning the origin of human sporadic cases***

 

===============

 

***our findings suggest that possible transmission risk of H-type BSE to sheep and human. Bioassay will be required to determine whether the PMCA products are infectious to these animals.

 

==============

 


 

Tuesday, December 16, 2014

 

*** Evidence for zoonotic potential of ovine scrapie prions

 

Hervé Cassard,1, n1 Juan-Maria Torres,2, n1 Caroline Lacroux,1, Jean-Yves Douet,1, Sylvie L. Benestad,3, Frédéric Lantier,4, Séverine Lugan,1, Isabelle Lantier,4, Pierrette Costes,1, Naima Aron,1, Fabienne Reine,5, Laetitia Herzog,5, Juan-Carlos Espinosa,2, Vincent Beringue5, & Olivier Andréoletti1, Affiliations Contributions Corresponding author Journal name: Nature Communications Volume: 5, Article number: 5821 DOI: doi:10.1038/ncomms6821 Received 07 August 2014 Accepted 10 November 2014 Published 16 December 2014 Article tools Citation Reprints Rights & permissions Article metrics

 

Abstract

 

Although Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) is the cause of variant Creutzfeldt Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans, the zoonotic potential of scrapie prions remains unknown. Mice genetically engineered to overexpress the human ​prion protein (tgHu) have emerged as highly relevant models for gauging the capacity of prions to transmit to humans. These models can propagate human prions without any apparent transmission barrier and have been used used to confirm the zoonotic ability of BSE. Here we show that a panel of sheep scrapie prions transmit to several tgHu mice models with an efficiency comparable to that of cattle BSE.

 

***The serial transmission of different scrapie isolates in these mice led to the propagation of prions that are phenotypically identical to those causing sporadic CJD (sCJD) in humans.

 

***These results demonstrate that scrapie prions have a zoonotic potential and raise new questions about the possible link between animal and human prions.

 

Subject terms: Biological sciences• Medical research At a glance

 


 

see more here ;

 


 

***The serial transmission of different scrapie isolates in these mice led to the propagation of prions that are phenotypically identical to those causing sporadic CJD (sCJD) in humans.***

 

***These results demonstrate that scrapie prions have a zoonotic potential and raise new questions about the possible link between animal and human prions.***

 

why do we not want to do TSE transmission studies on chimpanzees $

 

5. A positive result from a chimpanzee challenged severly would likely create alarm in some circles even if the result could not be interpreted for man. I have a view that all these agents could be transmitted provided a large enough dose by appropriate routes was given and the animals kept long enough. Until the mechanisms of the species barrier are more clearly understood it might be best to retain that hypothesis.

 

snip...

 

R. BRADLEY

 


 

1: J Infect Dis 1980 Aug;142(2):205-8

 

Oral transmission of kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and scrapie to nonhuman primates.

 

Gibbs CJ Jr, Amyx HL, Bacote A, Masters CL, Gajdusek DC.

 

Kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease of humans and scrapie disease of sheep and goats were transmitted to squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) that were exposed to the infectious agents only by their nonforced consumption of known infectious tissues. The asymptomatic incubation period in the one monkey exposed to the virus of kuru was 36 months; that in the two monkeys exposed to the virus of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was 23 and 27 months, respectively; and that in the two monkeys exposed to the virus of scrapie was 25 and 32 months, respectively. Careful physical examination of the buccal cavities of all of the monkeys failed to reveal signs or oral lesions. One additional monkey similarly exposed to kuru has remained asymptomatic during the 39 months that it has been under observation.

 

snip...

 

The successful transmission of kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and scrapie by natural feeding to squirrel monkeys that we have reported provides further grounds for concern that scrapie-infected meat may occasionally give rise in humans to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

 

PMID: 6997404

 


 

Recently the question has again been brought up as to whether scrapie is transmissible to man. This has followed reports that the disease has been transmitted to primates. One particularly lurid speculation (Gajdusek 1977) conjectures that the agents of scrapie, kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and transmissible encephalopathy of mink are varieties of a single "virus". The U.S. Department of Agriculture concluded that it could "no longer justify or permit scrapie-blood line and scrapie-exposed sheep and goats to be processed for human or animal food at slaughter or rendering plants" (ARC 84/77)" The problem is emphasised by the finding that some strains of scrapie produce lesions identical to the once which characterise the human dementias"

 

Whether true or not. the hypothesis that these agents might be transmissible to man raises two considerations. First, the safety of laboratory personnel requires prompt attention. Second, action such as the "scorched meat" policy of USDA makes the solution of the acrapie problem urgent if the sheep industry is not to suffer grievously.

 

snip...

 

76/10.12/4.6

 


 

Nature. 1972 Mar 10;236(5341):73-4.

 

Transmission of scrapie to the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

 

Gibbs CJ Jr, Gajdusek DC.

 

Nature 236, 73 - 74 (10 March 1972); doi:10.1038/236073a0

 

Transmission of Scrapie to the Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

 

C. J. GIBBS jun. & D. C. GAJDUSEK

 

National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland

 

SCRAPIE has been transmitted to the cynomolgus, or crab-eating, monkey (Macaca fascicularis) with an incubation period of more than 5 yr from the time of intracerebral inoculation of scrapie-infected mouse brain. The animal developed a chronic central nervous system degeneration, with ataxia, tremor and myoclonus with associated severe scrapie-like pathology of intensive astroglial hypertrophy and proliferation, neuronal vacuolation and status spongiosus of grey matter. The strain of scrapie virus used was the eighth passage in Swiss mice (NIH) of a Compton strain of scrapie obtained as ninth intracerebral passage of the agent in goat brain, from Dr R. L. Chandler (ARC, Compton, Berkshire).

 


 


 

Saturday, April 23, 2016

 

SCRAPIE WS-01: Prion diseases in animals and zoonotic potential 2016

 

Prion. 10:S15-S21. 2016 ISSN: 1933-6896 printl 1933-690X online

 


 

*** Docket No. APHIS-2007-0127 Scrapie in Sheep and Goats Terry Singeltary Sr. Submission ***

 

Docket No. APHIS-2007-0127 Scrapie in Sheep and Goats

 

SUMMARY: We are reopening the comment period for our proposed rule that would revise completely the scrapie regulations, which concern the risk groups and categories established for individual animals and for flocks, the use of genetic testing as a means of assigning risk levels to animals, movement restrictions for animals found to be genetically less susceptible or resistant to scrapie, and recordkeeping requirements. This action will allow interested persons additional time to prepare and submit comments.DATES: The comment period for the proposed rule published on September 10, 2015 (80 FR 54660-54692) is reopened. We will consider all comments that we receive on or before December 9, 2015. ...

 


 


 


 

Comment from Terry Singeltary This is a Comment on the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) Proposed Rule: Scrapie in Sheep and Goats

 

For related information, Open Docket Folder Docket folder icon

 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Show agency attachment(s) AttachmentsView All (0)

 

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Comment View document:Indeed, much science has changed about the Scrapie TSE prion, including more science linking Scrapie to humans. sadly, politics, industry, and trade, have not changed, and those usually trump sound science, as is the case with all Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy TSE Prion disease in livestock producing animals and the OIE. we can look no further at the legal trading of the Scrapie TSE prion both typical and atypical of all strains, and CWD all stains. With as much science of old, and now more new science to back this up, Scrapie of all types i.e. atypical and typical, BSE all strains, and CWD all strains, should be regulated in trade as BSE TSE PRION. In fact, I urge APHIS et al and the OIE, and all trading partners to take heed to the latest science on the TSE prion disease, all of them, and seriously reconsider the blatant disregards for human and animal health, all in the name of trade, with the continued relaxing of TSE Prion trade regulations through the 'NEGLIGIBLE BSE RISK' PROGRAM, which was set up to fail in the first place. If the world does not go back to the 'BSE RISK ASSESSMENTS', enhance, and or change that assessment process to include all TSE prion disease, i.e. 'TSE RISK ASSESSMENT', if we do not do this and if we continue this farce with OIE and the USDA et al, and the 'NEGLIGIBLE BSE RISK' PROGRAM, we will never eradicate the TSE prion aka mad cow type disease, they will continue to mutate and spread among species of human and animal origin, and they will continue to kill. ...

 

please see ;

 

O.05: Transmission of prions to primates after extended silent incubation periods: Implications for BSE and scrapie risk assessment in human populations

 

Emmanuel Comoy, Jacqueline Mikol, Valerie Durand, Sophie Luccantoni, Evelyne Correia, Nathalie Lescoutra, Capucine Dehen, and Jean-Philippe Deslys Atomic Energy Commission; Fontenay-aux-Roses, France

 

Prion diseases (PD) are the unique neurodegenerative proteinopathies reputed to be transmissible under field conditions since decades. The transmission of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) to humans evidenced that an animal PD might be zoonotic under appropriate conditions. Contrarily, in the absence of obvious (epidemiological or experimental) elements supporting a transmission or genetic predispositions, PD, like the other proteinopathies, are reputed to occur spontaneously (atpical animal prion strains, sporadic CJD summing 80% of human prion cases). Non-human primate models provided the first evidences supporting the transmissibiity of human prion strains and the zoonotic potential of BSE. Among them, cynomolgus macaques brought major information for BSE risk assessment for human health (Chen, 2014), according to their phylogenetic proximity to humans and extended lifetime. We used this model to assess the zoonotic potential of other animal PD from bovine, ovine and cervid origins even after very long silent incubation periods.

 

*** We recently observed the direct transmission of a natural classical scrapie isolate to macaque after a 10-year silent incubation period,

 

***with features similar to some reported for human cases of sporadic CJD, albeit requiring fourfold longe incubation than BSE. Scrapie, as recently evoked in humanized mice (Cassard, 2014),

 

***is the third potentially zoonotic PD (with BSE and L-type BSE),

 

***thus questioning the origin of human sporadic cases. We will present an updated panorama of our different transmission studies and discuss the implications of such extended incubation periods on risk assessment of animal PD for human health.

 

===============

 

***thus questioning the origin of human sporadic cases***

 

===============

 


 

***This information will have a scientific impact since it is the first study that demonstrates the transmission of scrapie to a non-human primate with a close genetic relationship to humans. This information is especially useful to regulatory officials and those involved with risk assessment of the potential transmission of animal prion diseases to humans.

 

***This observation strengthens the questioning of the harmlessness of scrapie to humans, at a time when protective measures for human and animal health are being dismantled and reduced as c-BSE is considered controlled and being eradicated. Our results underscore the importance of precautionary and protective measures and the necessity for long-term experimental transmission studies to assess the zoonotic potential of other animal prion strains.

 


 

please see file attachment for full submission and recent science and my deep concerns on the TSE Prion disease... No documents available. AttachmentsView All (1) scrapie-usa-blogspot-com View Attachment:

 


 

CWD to CJD in humans (why not?), as easy as BSE/Scrapie;

 

The EMBO Journal, Vol. 19, No. 17 pp. 4425-4430, 2000

 

© European Molecular Biology Organization

 

Evidence of a molecular barrier limiting susceptibility of humans, cattle and sheep to chronic wasting disease

 

G.J. Raymond1, A. Bossers2, L.D. Raymond1, K.I. O?Rourke3,

 

L.E. McHolland4, P.K. Bryant III4, M.W. Miller5, E.S. Williams6, M.

 

Smits2

 

and B. Caughey1,7

 

1NIAID/NIH Rocky Mountain Laboratories, Hamilton, MT 59840,

 

3USDA/ARS/ADRU, Pullman, WA 99164-7030, 4USDA/ARS/ABADRL,

 

Laramie, WY 82071, 5Colorado Division of Wildlife, Wildlife Research

 

Center, Fort Collins, CO 80526-2097, 6Department of Veterinary Sciences,

 

University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82070, USA and 2ID-Lelystad,

 

Institute for Animal Science and Health, Lelystad, The Netherlands

 

7Corresponding author e-mail: bcaughey@nih.gov Received June 7, 2000;

 

revised July 3, 2000; accepted July 5, 2000.

 

Abstract

 

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of deer and elk, and little is known about its transmissibility to other species. An important factor controlling interspecies TSE susceptibility is prion protein (PrP) homology between the source and recipient species/genotypes. Furthermore, the efficiency with which the protease-resistant PrP (PrP-res) of one species induces the in vitro conversion of the normal PrP (PrP-sen) of another species to the protease-resistant state correlates with the cross-species transmissibility of TSE agents. Here we show that the CWD-associated PrP-res (PrPCWD) of cervids readily induces the conversion of recombinant cervid PrP-sen molecules to the protease-resistant state in accordance with the known transmissibility of CWD between cervids. In contrast, PrPCWD-induced conversions of human and bovine PrP-sen were much less efficient, and conversion of ovine PrP-sen was intermediate. These results demonstrate a barrier at the molecular level that should limit the susceptibility of these non-cervid species to CWD.

 

snip...

 

Clearly, it is premature to draw firm conclusions about CWD passing naturally into humans, cattle and sheep, but the present results suggest that CWD transmissions to humans would be as limited by PrP incompatibility as transmissions of BSE or sheep scrapie to humans. Although there is no evidence that sheep scrapie has affected humans, it is likely that BSE has caused variant CJD in 74 people (definite and probable variant CJD cases to date according to the UK CJD Surveillance Unit). Given the presumably large number of people exposed to BSE infectivity, the susceptibility of humans may still be very low compared with cattle, which would be consistent with the relatively inefficient conversion of human PrP-sen by PrPBSE. Nonetheless, since humans have apparently been infected by BSE, it would seem prudent to take reasonable measures to limit exposure of humans (as well as sheep and cattle) to CWD infectivity as has been recommended for other animal TSEs.

 

snip...

 


 

Scrapie to Humans USA?

 

1: Neuroepidemiology. 1985;4(4):240-9. Related Articles,

 

Links

 

Sheep consumption: a possible source of spongiform encephalopathy in humans.

 

Davanipour Z, Alter M, Sobel E, Callahan M.

 

A fatal spongiform encephalopathy of sheep and goats (scrapie) shares many characteristics with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), a similar dementing illness of humans. To investigate the possibility that CJD is acquired by ingestion of contaminated sheep products, we collected information on production, slaughtering practices, and marketing of sheep in Pennsylvania. The study revealed that sheep were usually marketed before central nervous system signs of scrapie are expected to appear; breeds known to be susceptible to the disease were the most common breeds raised in the area; sheep were imported from other states including those with a high frequency of scrapie; use of veterinary services on the sheep farms investigated and, hence, opportunities to detect the disease were limited; sheep producers in the area knew little about scrapie despite the fact that the disease has been reported in the area, and animal organs including sheep organs were sometimes included in processed food. Therefore, it was concluded that in Pennsylvania there are some 'weak links' through which scrapie-infected animals could contaminate human food, and that consumption of these foods could perhaps account for spongiform encephalopathy in humans. The weak links observed are probably not unique to Pennsylvania.

 

PMID: 3915057 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 


 

Saturday, July 6, 2013

 

*** Small Ruminant Nor98 Prions Share Biochemical Features with Human Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker Disease and Variably Protease-Sensitive Prionopathy

 

Research Article

 


 

Monday, December 14, 2009

 

Similarities between Forms of Sheep Scrapie and Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Are Encoded by Distinct Prion Types

 

(hmmm, this is getting interesting now...TSS)

 

Sporadic CJD type 1 and atypical/ Nor98 scrapie are characterized by fine (reticular) deposits,

 

see also ;

 

All of the Heidenhain variants were of the methionine/ methionine type 1 molecular subtype.

 


 

see full text ;

 

Monday, December 14, 2009

 

Similarities between Forms of Sheep Scrapie and Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Are Encoded by Distinct Prion Types

 


 

Suspect symptoms

 

What if you can catch old-fashioned CJD by eating meat from a sheep infected with scrapie?

 

28 Mar 01 Most doctors believe that sCJD is caused by a prion protein deforming by chance into a killer. But Singeltary thinks otherwise. He is one of a number of campaigners who say that some sCJD, like the variant CJD related to BSE, is caused by eating meat from infected animals. Their suspicions have focused on sheep carrying scrapie, a BSE-like disease that is widespread in flocks across Europe and North America.

 

Now scientists in France have stumbled across new evidence that adds weight to the campaigners' fears. To their complete surprise, the researchers found that one strain of scrapie causes the same brain damage in mice as sCJD.

 

"This means we cannot rule out that at least some sCJD may be caused by some strains of scrapie," says team member Jean-Philippe Deslys of the French Atomic Energy Commission's medical research laboratory in Fontenay-aux-Roses, south-west of Paris. Hans Kretschmar of the University of Göttingen, who coordinates CJD surveillance in Germany, is so concerned by the findings that he now wants to trawl back through past sCJD cases to see if any might have been caused by eating infected mutton or lamb...

 

2001

 

Suspect symptoms

 

What if you can catch old-fashioned CJD by eating meat from a sheep infected with scrapie?

 

28 Mar 01

 

Like lambs to the slaughter

 

31 March 2001

 

by Debora MacKenzie Magazine issue 2284.

 

FOUR years ago, Terry Singeltary watched his mother die horribly from a degenerative brain disease. Doctors told him it was Alzheimer's, but Singeltary was suspicious. The diagnosis didn't fit her violent symptoms, and he demanded an autopsy. It showed she had died of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

 

Most doctors believe that sCJD is caused by a prion protein deforming by chance into a killer. But Singeltary thinks otherwise. He is one of a number of campaigners who say that some sCJD, like the variant CJD related to BSE, is caused by eating meat from infected animals. Their suspicions have focused on sheep carrying scrapie, a BSE-like disease that is widespread in flocks across Europe and North America.

 

Now scientists in France have stumbled across new evidence that adds weight to the campaigners' fears. To their complete surprise, the researchers found that one strain of scrapie causes the same brain damage in mice as sCJD.

 

"This means we cannot rule out that at least some sCJD may be caused by some strains of scrapie," says team member Jean-Philippe Deslys of the French Atomic Energy Commission's medical research laboratory in Fontenay-aux-Roses, south-west of Paris. Hans Kretschmar of the University of Göttingen, who coordinates CJD surveillance in Germany, is so concerned by the findings that he now wants to trawl back through past sCJD cases to see if any might have been caused by eating infected mutton or lamb.

 

Scrapie has been around for centuries and until now there has been no evidence that it poses a risk to human health. But if the French finding means that scrapie can cause sCJD in people, countries around the world may have overlooked a CJD crisis to rival that caused by BSE.

 

Deslys and colleagues were originally studying vCJD, not sCJD. They injected the brains of macaque monkeys with brain from BSE cattle, and from French and British vCJD patients. The brain damage and clinical symptoms in the monkeys were the same for all three. Mice injected with the original sets of brain tissue or with infected monkey brain also developed the same symptoms.

 

As a control experiment, the team also injected mice with brain tissue from people and animals with other prion diseases: a French case of sCJD; a French patient who caught sCJD from human-derived growth hormone; sheep with a French strain of scrapie; and mice carrying a prion derived from an American scrapie strain. As expected, they all affected the brain in a different way from BSE and vCJD. But while the American strain of scrapie caused different damage from sCJD, the French strain produced exactly the same pathology.

 

"The main evidence that scrapie does not affect humans has been epidemiology," says Moira Bruce of the neuropathogenesis unit of the Institute for Animal Health in Edinburgh, who was a member of the same team as Deslys. "You see about the same incidence of the disease everywhere, whether or not there are many sheep, and in countries such as New Zealand with no scrapie." In the only previous comparisons of sCJD and scrapie in mice, Bruce found they were dissimilar.

 

But there are more than 20 strains of scrapie, and six of sCJD. "You would not necessarily see a relationship between the two with epidemiology if only some strains affect only some people," says Deslys. Bruce is cautious about the mouse results, but agrees they require further investigation. Other trials of scrapie and sCJD in mice, she says, are in progress.

 

People can have three different genetic variations of the human prion protein, and each type of protein can fold up two different ways. Kretschmar has found that these six combinations correspond to six clinical types of sCJD: each type of normal prion produces a particular pathology when it spontaneously deforms to produce sCJD.

 

But if these proteins deform because of infection with a disease-causing prion, the relationship between pathology and prion type should be different, as it is in vCJD. "If we look at brain samples from sporadic CJD cases and find some that do not fit the pattern," says Kretschmar, "that could mean they were caused by infection."

 

There are 250 deaths per year from sCJD in the US, and a similar incidence elsewhere. Singeltary and other US activists think that some of these people died after eating contaminated meat or "nutritional" pills containing dried animal brain. Governments will have a hard time facing activists like Singeltary if it turns out that some sCJD isn't as spontaneous as doctors have insisted.

 

Deslys's work on macaques also provides further proof that the human disease vCJD is caused by BSE. And the experiments showed that vCJD is much more virulent to primates than BSE, even when injected into the bloodstream rather than the brain. This, says Deslys, means that there is an even bigger risk than we thought that vCJD can be passed from one patient to another through contaminated blood transfusions and surgical instruments.

 


 

Then follow up with PNAS studies from which new scientist article written from;

 

Adaptation of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent to primates and comparison with Creutzfeldt- Jakob disease: Implications for human health

 

THE findings from Corinne Ida Lasmézas*, [dagger] , Jean-Guy Fournier*, Virginie Nouvel*,

 

Hermann Boe*, Domíníque Marcé*, François Lamoury*, Nicolas Kopp [Dagger

 

] , Jean-Jacques Hauw§, James Ironside¶, Moira Bruce [||] , Dominique

 

Dormont*, and Jean-Philippe Deslys* et al, that The agent responsible for French iatrogenic growth hormone-linked CJD taken as a control is very different from vCJD but is similar to that found in one case of sporadic CJD and one sheep scrapie isolate;

 


 

 Comment from Terry Singeltary Sr.

 

 This is a Comment on the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) Notice: Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposals, Submissions, and Approvals: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Animals and Animal Products

 

 Docket No. APHIS-2014-0107 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Animals and Animal Products Singeltary Submission ;

 

 AttachmentsView All (1)

 

 Docket No. APHIS-2014-0107 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Animals and Animal Products Singeltary Submission View Attachment:

 


 

 Comment

 

 Subject: BSE; MRR; IMPORTATION OF LIVE BOVINES AND PRODUCTS DERIVED FROM BOVINES [Docket No. APHIS-2006-0041] RIN 0579-AC01

 

 Date: January 9, 2007 at 9:08 am PST

 


 

 Owens, Julie

 

 Terry S. Singeltary Sr.

 

 Sent: Monday, July 24, 2006 1:09 PM

 

 To: FSIS RegulationsComments

 

 Subject: [Docket No. FSIS-2006-0011] FSIS Harvard Risk Assessment of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) Page 1 of 98

 


 

 Comment from Terry S Singletary

 

 This is a Comment on the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)

 

 Proposed Rule: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Minimal-Risk Regions, Identification of Ruminants and Processing and Importation of Commodities

 

 For related information, Open Docket Folder Docket folder icon

 

 Comment

 

 see full text ;

 


 

 FSIS, USDA, REPLY TO SINGELTARY

 


 

 Comment from Terry Singeltary

 

 This is a Comment on the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Notice: Draft Guidance for Industry on Ensuring Safety of Animal Feed Maintained and Fed On-Farm; Availability

 

 For related information, Open Docket Folder Docket folder icon

 


 

 Comment from Terry Singeltary

 

 This is a Comment on the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) Notice: Environmental Impact Statements; Availability, etc.: Animal Carcass Management

 


 

 Comment from Terry Singeltary

 

 This is a Comment on the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) Proposed Rule: Scrapie in Sheep and Goats

 

 For related information, Open Docket Folder Docket folder icon

 

 please see ;

 

 AttachmentsView All (1) scrapie-usa-blogspot-com View Attachment:

 


 

 Comment from Terry S. Singeltary Sr.

 

 This is a Comment on the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Notice:

 

 Risk Assessment of Foodborne Illness Associated With Pathogens From Produce Grown in Fields Amended With Untreated Biological Soil Amendments of Animal Origin; Request for Scientific Data, Information, and Comments

 


 

 Comment from Terry Singeltary

 

 This is a Comment on the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)

 

 Notice: Program Standards: Chronic Wasting Disease Herd Certification Program and Interstate Movement of Farmed or Captive Deer, Elk, and Moose

 

 Comment

 

 Docket No. 00-108-10 Chronic Wasting Disease Herd Certification Program and Interstate Movement of Farmed or Captive Deer, Elk, and Moose; Program Standards

 

 >>>The CWD herd certification program is a voluntary, cooperative program that establishes minimum requirements for the interstate movement of farmed or captive cervids, provisions for participating States to administer Approved State CWD Herd Certification Programs, and provisions for participating herds to become certified as having a low risk of being infected with CWD<<<

 

 Greetings USDA/APHIS et al,

 

 I kindly would like to comment on Docket No. 00-108-10 Chronic Wasting Disease Herd Certification Program and Interstate Movement of Farmed or Captive Deer, Elk, and Moose; Program Standards.See attached file(s)

 

 Attachments (1)

 


 

 SINGELTARY SUBMISSION ATTACHMENT

 

 View Attachment:

 

 Comment from Terry Singeltary This is a Comment on the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) Proposed Rule: Chronic Wasting Disease Herd Certification Program and Interstate Movement of Farmed or Captive Deer, Elk, and Moose

 


 

 Singeltary Submissions to Plos and Nature...

 

 26/01/2016

 

 *** Alzheimer-type brain pathology may be transmitted by grafts of dura mater 26/01/2016 ***

 


 

 I strenuously once again urge the FDA and its industry constituents, to make it MANDATORY that all ruminant feed be banned to all ruminants, and this should include all cervids as soon as possible for the following reasons...

 

 ======

 

 In the USA, under the Food and Drug Administrations BSE Feed Regulation (21 CFR 589.2000) most material (exceptions include milk, tallow, and gelatin) from deer and elk is prohibited for use in feed for ruminant animals. With regards to feed for non-ruminant animals, under FDA law, CWD positive deer may not be used for any animal feed or feed ingredients. For elk and deer considered at high risk for CWD, the FDA recommends that these animals do not enter the animal feed system.

 

 ***However, this recommendation is guidance and not a requirement by law.

 

 ======

 

 31 Jan 2015 at 20:14 GMT

 

 *** Ruminant feed ban for cervids in the United States? ***

 

 31 Jan 2015 at 20:14 GMT

 

 see Singeltary comment ;

 


 

 *** Singeltary reply ; Molecular, Biochemical and Genetic Characteristics of BSE in Canada Singeltary reply ;

 


 

 26 March 2003

 

 Terry S. Singeltary, retired (medically) CJD WATCH

 


 

 The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 3, Issue 8, Page 463, August 2003 doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(03)00715-1Cite or Link Using DOI

 

 Tracking spongiform encephalopathies in North America

 

 Original

 

 Xavier Bosch

 

 “My name is Terry S Singeltary Sr,

 


 

 Diagnosis and Reporting of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

 

 Singeltary, Sr et al. JAMA.2001; 285: 733-734. Vol. 285 No. 6, February 14, 2001 JAMA

 

 Diagnosis and Reporting of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

 

 Terry S. Singeltary, Sr Bacliff, Tex

 

 1. Gibbons RV, Holman RC, Belay ED, Schonberger LB. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United States: 1979-1998. JAMA. 2000;284:2322-2323.

 


 

 2 January 2000

 

 British Medical Journal

 

 U.S. Scientist should be concerned with a CJD epidemic in the U.S., as well

 


 

 Tuesday, May 10, 2016

 

 2015 PDA Virus & TSE Safety Forum Meeting Report

 

 >>>Recently transmission of prions from blood of patients with sporadic CJD to humanized mice could be demonstrated.<<<

 

 >>>Further-on, urine samples of a control population (normal and neurological population) showed no signal in the study; *** however, in samples from patients with sporadic CJD and vCJD, a signal was detected in both patient populations.<<<

 

 Meeting Report: 2015 PDA Virus & TSE Safety Forum

 


 

 Sunday, May 1, 2016

 

 Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research 25th Meeting of: The Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Advisory Committee June 1, 2015 Transcript

 

 FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION

 


 

 Saturday, April 23, 2016

 

 v-CJD prion distribution in the tissues of patients at preclinical and clinical stage of the disease

 


 

 Terry S. Singeltary Sr.