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My mother was murdered by what I call corporate and political homicide i.e. FOR PROFIT! she died from a rare phenotype of CJD i.e. the Heidenhain Variant of Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease i.e. sporadic, simply meaning from unknown route and source. I have simply been trying to validate her death DOD 12/14/97 with the truth. There is a route, and there is a source. There are many here in the USA. WE must make CJD and all human TSE, of all age groups 'reportable' Nationally and Internationally, with a written CJD questionnaire asking real questions pertaining to route and source of this agent. Friendly fire has the potential to play a huge role in the continued transmission of this agent via the medical, dental, and surgical arena. We must not flounder any longer. ...TSS

Sunday, February 10, 2013

Scientific Opinion on the risk of transmission of classical scrapie via in vivo derived embryo transfer in ovine animals

EFSA Journal 2013;11(2):3080 [15 pp.]. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2013.3080 EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ) SCIENTIFIC OPINION


 
Scientific Opinion on the risk of transmission of classical scrapie via in vivo derived embryo transfer in ovine animals1
 
 
 
 
EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards2, 3
 
 
 
 
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Parma, Italy Panel Members Olivier Andreoletti, Dorte Lau Baggesen, Declan Bolton, Patrick Butaye, Paul Cook, Robert Davies, Pablo S. Fernandez Escamez, John Griffin, Tine Hald, Arie Havelaar, Kostas Koutsoumanis, Roland Lindqvist, James McLauchlin, Truls Nesbakken, Miguel Prieto Maradona, Antonia Ricci, Giuseppe Ru, Moez Sanaa, Marion Simmons, John Sofos and John ThrelfallAcknowledgment The Panel wishes to thank the members of the Working Group on the risk of transmission of classical scrapie via in vivo embryo transfer in ovine animals: Olivier Andreoletti, Nora Hunter and Ciriaco Ligios for the preparatory work on this scientific opinion and the hearing experts: Michel Thibier and Pascale Chavatte-Palmer, and EFSA staff: Pablo Romero Barrios for the support provided to this scientific opinion.Possible conflict of interest One member of the Panel did not participate in the discussion on the subject referred to above because of potential conflicts of interest identified in accordance with the EFSA policy on declarations of interests.Contact biohaz@efsa.europa.eu
 
 
 
 
Type: Opinion of the Scientific Committee/Scientific Panel On request from: European Commission Question number: EFSA-Q-2012-00647 Adopted: 24 January 2013 Published: 08 February 2013 Affiliation: European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Parma, Italy Article(0.3 Mb) Send Print Cite
 
 
 
 
Abstract
 
 
 
 
The risk of transmission of classical scrapie via the transfer of in vivo derived embryo in ovines was assessed, taking into account the scientific information made available since the last EFSA opinion on this topic (2010) (see http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/1429.htm). The potential impact of PrP genotype of the embryo and/or of the ram and donor ewe on this risk was also assessed. The new data made available over the last three years further reinforce the view that classical scrapie could be vertically transmitted in sheep. Since the possibility of such vertical transmission was already considered in the previous opinion, its conclusions and recommendations relating to the risk of classical scrapie transmission via embryo transfer remain valid. In ovines, the susceptibility to classical scrapie infection in sheep is strongly influenced by certain polymorphisms of the PrP gene. Under natural exposure conditions, animals that are heterozygous or homozygous A136R154R171 display respectively a low or negligible risk of being infected. The genetic control of the susceptibility to classical scrapie is also likely to impact on the risk of transmitting the disease via embryo transfer. Irrespective of the embryo’s genotype, embryos derived from rams and dams carrying at least one ARR allele would significantly decrease this risk (compared to an embryo from parents of unknown genotypes). The use of homozygous ARR embryos would provide the highest level of safety regarding the risk of transmitting classical scrapie through embryo transfer (in vivo derived embryos). The use of heterozygous ARR embryos would ensure a higher level of safety compared to Q171/Q171 embryos. Finally, it was concluded that, providing the OIE recommendations and procedures relating to embryo transfer are adhered to, the risk of transmitting classical scrapie due to the transfer of homozygous or heterozygous ovine ARR embryos can be considered negligible.
 
 
 
 
© European Food Safety Authority, 2013
 
 
 
 
Summary Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the risk of transmission of classical scrapie via in vivo derived embryo transfer in ovine. The Panel was requested to provide an updated scientific opinion on the risk of transmission of classical scrapie via in vivo derived embryo transfer in ovine animals, taking into account any new scientific information made available since its last assessment on this issue in 2010. In addition, the Panel was requested to elaborate on this risk of transmission according to the PrP genotype of the embryo and/or of the ram and donor ewe.
 
 
 
 
The Panel reviewed the scientific literature published since the adoption of the previous Opinion covering this issue in 2010 and concluded that relevant findings available further reinforce the view that classical scrapie in small ruminants could be vertically transmitted. Since the possibility of vertical transmission was already considered in the previous opinion, these new findings do not make it necessary to revise the conclusions related to the risk of classical scrapie transmission via embryo transfer.
 
 
 
 
With regard to the effect of genotype, the susceptibility to classical scrapie infection in sheep is strongly influenced by certain polymorphisms of the PrP gene. Under natural exposure conditions, animals that are heterozygous or homozygous A136R154R171 show respectively a low or negligible risk of being infected by classical scrapie. This genetic control of the susceptibility to classical scrapie infection directly influences the risk of transmitting the disease via embryo transfer in that, irrespective of the embryo’s genotype, the use of embryos derived from rams and dams carrying at least one ARR allele would significantly decrease the risk of transmitting classical scrapie via embryo transfer (by comparison to an embryo from parents of unknown genotypes). Furthermore, the use of homozygous ARR embryos would provide the highest possible level of safety with regard to minimising the risk of transmitting classical scrapie through embryo transfer (in vivo derived embryos). The use of heterozygous ARR embryos would ensure a higher level of safety by comparison with homozygous Q171 (A/V136, R/H154) embryos.
 
 
 
 
Providing that the OIE recommendations and procedures relating to embryo transfer are adhered to, the risk of transmitting classical scrapie by the implantation of homozygous or heterozygous ARR ovine embryos can be considered negligible.
 
 
 
 
The Panel indicated that the recommendations relating to the risk of transmitting classical scrapie via embryo transfer that were formulated in the 2010 opinion remain valid. In particular, the presence of infectivity in ovine embryos collected from scrapie infected dams bearing susceptible genotypes needs to be assessed before a definitive assessment of the risk of transmitting classical scrapie via the use of embryos bearing a susceptible genotype can be made.
 
 
 
 
Keywords Classical scrapie, ovine, sheep, embryo transfer, transmission risk
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
snip...
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
 
 
 
 
CONCLUSIONS Since the 2010 opinion only two relevant studies have been published. None of them suggest a need to revise the previous conclusion adopted by the BIOHAZ Panel in January 2010 i.e ‘Based on the data currently available the risk of TSE transmission associated with embryos collected from Classical scrapie incubating ewes and she-goats ranges from negligible to low. However, data are insufficient to conclude that such a risk is negligible.’ In sheep the susceptibility to classical scrapie infection is strongly influenced by the polymorphisms of the PrP gene. Under natural exposure conditions, animals that are heterozygous or homozygous ARR show respectively a low or negligible risk of being infected by classical scrapie. This genetic control of the susceptibility to classical scrapie infection directly influences the risk of transmitting the disease via embryo transfer:
 
 
 
 
– Irrespective of the embryo’s genotype, the use of embryos derived from rams and dams carrying at least one ARR allele would significantly decrease the risk of transmitting classical scrapie via embryo transfer (by comparison to an embryo from parents of unknown genotypes).
 
 
 
 
– The use of homozygous ARR embryos would provide the highest possible level of safety with regard to the risk of transmitting classical scrapie through embryo transfer (in vivo derived embryos).
 
 
 
 
– The use of heterozygous ARR embryos would ensure a higher level of safety by comparison with Q171/Q17110 embryos.
 
 
 
 
– The risk of transmitting classical scrapie by implantation of a Q171/Q171 embryo collected from a dam with an unknown classical scrapie status cannot be considered negligible. Providing that the OIE recommendations and procedures relating to embryo transfer are adhered to, the risk of transmitting classical scrapie by the implantation of homozygous or heterozygous ovine ARR embryos can be considered negligible.
 
 
 
 
RECOMMENDATIONS
 
 
 
 
The recommendations relating to the risk of transmitting classical scrapie via embryo transfer that were formulated in the 2010 opinion remain valid.
 
 
 
 
In particular, the presence of infectivity in ovine embryos collected from scrapie infected dams bearing susceptible genotypes needs to be assessed before a definitive assessment of the risk of transmitting classical scrapie via the use of embryos bearing a susceptible genotype can be made.
 
 
 
 
10 By convention Q171 refers to ARQ, VRQ, and AHQ alleles.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
SEMEN AND TSE INFECTIVITY
 
 
 
 
USDA
 
 
 
 
Chronic Wasting Disease
 
 
 
 
Program Standards
 
 
 
 
July 2012
 
 
 
 
At this time there is no scientific evidence that germplasm (embryos or semen) may transmit CWD. However, there is no scientific evidence that embryos or semen from positive animals do not serve as a route of transmission for CWD. Because of the lack of scientific information on transmission potential, APHIS recommends that germplasm from known CWD-positive animals should not be used. If more definitive evidence of the role of embryos or semen in the transmission of CWD should become available, this guidance will be changed.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Envt.18:
 
 
 
 
Mother to Offspring Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease
 
 
 
 
Candace K. Mathiason,† Amy Nalls, Kelly Anderson, Jeanette Hayes-Klug, Jenny G. Powers, Nicholas J. Haley and Edward A. Hoover Colorado State University; Fort Collins, CO USA†Presenting author; Email: ckm@lamar.colostate.edu
 
 
 
 
We have developed a new cervid model in small Asian muntjac deer (Muntiacus reevesi) to study potential modes of vertical transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) from mother to offspring. Eight of eight (8/8) muntjac doe orally infected with CWD tested PrPCWD lymphoid positive by four months post infection. Ten fawns were born to these CWD-infected doe— four of the fawns were viable, five were non-viable and one was a first trimester fetus harvested from a CWD-infected doe euthanized at end-stage disease. The viable fawns have been monitored for CWD infection by immunohistochemistry and sPMCA performed on serial tonsil and rectal lymphoid tissue biopsies. PrPCWD has been detected in one fawn by IHC as early as 40 days of age. Moreover, sPMCA performed on rectal lymphoid tissue has yielded positive results on another fawn at ten days of age. In addition, sPMCA assays have demonstrated amplifiable prions in fetal placental or spleen tissue of three non-viable fawns and mammary tissue of the dams. Additional pregnancy related fluids and tissues from the doe as well as tissue from the nonviable fawns are currently being probed for the presence of CWD. In summary, we have employed the muntjac deer model, to demonstrate for the first time the transmission of CWD from mother to offspring. These studies provide the foundation to investigate the mechanisms and pathways of maternal prion transfer.
 
 
 
 
 
 
PPo3-18:
 
 
 
 
A Possible Case of Maternal Transmission of the BSE Agent within Captive Cheetah Affected with Feline Spongiform Encephalopathy
 
 
 
 
Anna Bencsik, Sabine Debeer, Thierry Petit and Thierry Baron Afssa; Unité ATNC; Lyon, France; Zoo de la Palmyre; Les Mathes, France
 
 
 
 
Key words: BSE, FSE, vertical transmission
 
 
 
 
Introduction. Feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE) is considered to be related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). It has been reported in domestic cats as well as in captive wild cats including cheetahs, first in the United Kingdom (UK) and then in other European countries. In France, several cases were described in cheetahs either imported from UK or born in France. Here we report details of two other FSE cases in captive cheetah. These cases are of particular interest since the 2nd case of FSE in a cheetah born in France, appears most likely due to maternal transmission.1
 
 
 
 
Results. Complete PrPd study showed the close likeness between the two cheetah cases. The TgOvPrP4 mouse brains infected with cattle BSE and cheetah FSE revealed similar vacuolar lesion profiles, PrPd brain mapping with occurrence of typical florid plaques.
 
 
 
 
Materials and Methods. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), pathological form of PrP(PrPd) was analyzed in the brains and peripheral organs of these two cheetahs. Transmission studies to the TgOvPrP4 mouse line were also performed, for comparison with the transmission of cattle BSE. Lesion profiles of the infected transgenic mice were analyzed as well as type and brain distribution of PrPd.


 
Conclusion. Collectively, these data indicate that both FSE cases harbor the same strain of agent as the cattle BSE agent. Because this is most probably a case of maternal transmission of the disease, this new observation may have some
 
 
 
 
impact on our knowledge of vertical transmission of BSE agent-linked TSEs such as in human variant Creutzfeldt Jakob disease.
 
 
 
 
References
 
 
 
 
1. Bencsik et al. PLoS One 2009; 4:6929.
 
 
 
 
PRION 2011
 
 
 
 
landesbioscience.com
 
 
 
 
International Prion Congress: From agent to disease September 8–11, 2010 Salzburg, Austria
 
 
 
 
 
 
Saturday, February 11, 2012




PrPSc Detection and Infectivity in Semen from Scrapie-Infected Sheep
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Friday, December 23, 2011
 
 
 
 
Detection of PrPres in Genetically Susceptible Fetuses from Sheep with Natural Scrapie
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
why do we not want to do TSE transmission studies on chimpanzees $
 
 
 
 
 
 
5. A positive result from a chimpanzee challenged severly would likely create alarm in some circles even if the result could not be interpreted for man. I have a view that all these agents could be transmitted provided a large enough dose by appropriate routes was given and the animals kept long enough. Until the mechanisms of the species barrier are more clearly understood it might be best to retain that hypothesis.
 
 
 
 
 
 
snip...
 
 
 
 
 
 
R. BRADLEY
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Wednesday, February 16, 2011


 
IN CONFIDENCE
 
 
 
 
SCRAPIE TRANSMISSION TO CHIMPANZEES


 
IN CONFIDENCE


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sunday, December 12, 2010
 
 
 
 
EFSA reviews BSE/TSE infectivity in small ruminant tissues News Story 2 December 2010
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sunday, April 18, 2010


 
SCRAPIE AND ATYPICAL SCRAPIE TRANSMISSION STUDIES A REVIEW 2010
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Thursday, December 23, 2010


 
Molecular Typing of Protease-Resistant Prion Protein in Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies of Small Ruminants, France, 2002-2009


 
Volume 17, Number 1 January 2011


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Thursday, November 18, 2010
 
 
 
 
Increased susceptibility of human-PrP transgenic mice to bovine spongiform encephalopathy following passage in sheep
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Monday, April 25, 2011


 
Experimental Oral Transmission of Atypical Scrapie to Sheep
 
 
 
 
Volume 17, Number 5-May 2011
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Friday, February 11, 2011
 
 
 
 
Atypical/Nor98 Scrapie Infectivity in Sheep Peripheral Tissues
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Thursday, March 29, 2012


 
atypical Nor-98 Scrapie has spread from coast to coast in the USA 2012
 
 
 
 
NIAA Annual Conference April 11-14, 2011San Antonio, Texas
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Wednesday, April 4, 2012


 
20120402 - Breach of quarantine/Violation de la mise en quarantaine of an ongoing Scrapie investigation
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Michigan and California have had a high spike in Goat Scrapie cases, compared to elsewhere ???
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tuesday, February 01, 2011


 
Sparse PrP-Sc accumulation in the placentas of goats with naturally acquired scrapie
 
 
 
 
(Figure 6) including five goat cases in FY 2008 that originated from the same herd in Michigan. This is highly unusual for goats, and I strenuously urge that there should be an independent investigation into finding the common denominator for these 5 goats in the same herd in Michigan with Scrapie. ...
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Thursday, February 23, 2012
 
 
 
 
Atypical Scrapie NOR-98 confirmed Alberta Canada sheep January 2012
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
RESEARCH
 
 
 
 
Emerging Infectious Diseases • www.cdc.gov/eid • Vol. 17, No. 5, May 2011
 
 
 
 
Experimental Oral Transmission of Atypical Scrapie to Sheep
 
 
 
 
Marion M. Simmons, S. Jo Moore,1 Timm Konold, Lisa Thurston, Linda A. Terry, Leigh Thorne, Richard Lockey, Chris Vickery, Stephen A.C. Hawkins, Melanie J. Chaplin, and John Spiropoulos
 
 
 
 
To investigate the possibility of oral transmission of atypical scrapie in sheep and determine the distribution of infectivity in the animals’ peripheral tissues, we challenged neonatal lambs orally with atypical scrapie; they were then killed at 12 or 24 months. Screening test results were negative for disease-specifi c prion protein in all but 2 recipients; they had positive results for examination of brain, but negative for peripheral tissues. Infectivity of brain, distal ileum, and spleen from all animals was assessed in mouse bioassays; positive results were obtained from tissues that had negative results on screening. These fi ndings demonstrate that atypical scrapie can be transmitted orally and indicate that it has the potential for natural transmission and iatrogenic spread through animal feed. Detection of infectivity in tissues negative by current surveillance methods indicates that diagnostic sensitivity is suboptimal for atypical scrapie, and potentially infectious material may be able to pass into the human food chain.
 
 
 
 
SNIP...
 
 
 
 
Although we do not have epidemiologic evidence that supports the effi cient spread of disease in the fi eld, these data imply that disease is potentially transmissible under fi eld situations and that spread through animal feed may be possible if the current feed restrictions were to be relaxed. Additionally, almost no data are available on the potential for atypical scrapie to transmit to other food animal species, certainly by the oral route. However, work with transgenic mice has demonstrated the potential susceptibility of pigs, with the disturbing fi nding that the biochemical properties of the resulting PrPSc have changed on transmission (40). The implications of this observation for subsequent transmission and host target range are currently unknown.
 
 
 
 
How reassuring is this absence of detectable PrPSc from a public health perspective? The bioassays performed in this study are not titrations, so the infectious load of the positive gut tissues cannot be quantifi ed, although infectivity has been shown unequivocally. No experimental data are currently available on the zoonotic potential of atypical scrapie, either through experimental challenge of humanized mice or any meaningful epidemiologic correlation with human forms of TSE. However, the detection of infectivity in the distal ileum of animals as young as 12 months, in which all the tissues tested were negative for PrPSc by the currently available screening and confi rmatory diagnostic tests, indicates that the diagnostic sensitivity of current surveillance methods is suboptimal for detecting atypical scrapie and that potentially infectious material may be able to pass into the human food chain undetected.
 
 
 
 
Emerging Infectious Diseases • www.cdc.gov/eid • Vol. 17, No. 5, May 2011
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1: J Infect Dis 1980 Aug;142(2):205-8
 
 
 
 
Oral transmission of kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and scrapie to nonhuman primates.
 
 
 
 
Gibbs CJ Jr, Amyx HL, Bacote A, Masters CL, Gajdusek DC.
 
 
 
 
Kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease of humans and scrapie disease of sheep and goats were transmitted to squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) that were exposed to the infectious agents only by their nonforced consumption of known infectious tissues. The asymptomatic incubation period in the one monkey exposed to the virus of kuru was 36 months; that in the two monkeys exposed to the virus of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was 23 and 27 months, respectively; and that in the two monkeys exposed to the virus of scrapie was 25 and 32 months, respectively. Careful physical examination of the buccal cavities of all of the monkeys failed to reveal signs or oral lesions. One additional monkey similarly exposed to kuru has remained asymptomatic during the 39 months that it has been under observation.
 
 
 
 
snip...
 
 
 
 
The successful transmission of kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and scrapie by natural feeding to squirrel monkeys that we have reported provides further grounds for concern that scrapie-infected meat may occasionally give rise in humans to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.
 
 
 
 
PMID: 6997404
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Recently the question has again been brought up as to whether scrapie is transmissible to man. This has followed reports that the disease has been transmitted to primates. One particularly lurid speculation (Gajdusek 1977) conjectures that the agents of scrapie, kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and transmissible encephalopathy of mink are varieties of a single "virus". The U.S. Department of Agriculture concluded that it could "no longer justify or permit scrapie-blood line and scrapie-exposed sheep and goats to be processed for human or animal food at slaughter or rendering plants" (ARC 84/77)" The problem is emphasised by the finding that some strains of scrapie produce lesions identical to the once which characterise the human dementias"
 
 
 
 
Whether true or not. the hypothesis that these agents might be transmissible to man raises two considerations. First, the safety of laboratory personnel requires prompt attention. Second, action such as the "scorched meat" policy of USDA makes the solution of the acrapie problem urgent if the sheep industry is not to suffer grievously.
 
 
 
 
snip...
 
 
 
 
76/10.12/4.6
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Nature. 1972 Mar 10;236(5341):73-4.
 
 
 
 
Transmission of scrapie to the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis).
 
 
 
 
Gibbs CJ Jr, Gajdusek DC.


 
Nature 236, 73 - 74 (10 March 1972); doi:10.1038/236073a0
 
 
 
 
Transmission of Scrapie to the Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis)
 
 
 
C. J. GIBBS jun. & D. C. GAJDUSEK
 
 
 
 
National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland
 
 
 
 
SCRAPIE has been transmitted to the cynomolgus, or crab-eating, monkey (Macaca fascicularis) with an incubation period of more than 5 yr from the time of intracerebral inoculation of scrapie-infected mouse brain. The animal developed a chronic central nervous system degeneration, with ataxia, tremor and myoclonus with associated severe scrapie-like pathology of intensive astroglial hypertrophy and proliferation, neuronal vacuolation and status spongiosus of grey matter. The strain of scrapie virus used was the eighth passage in Swiss mice (NIH) of a Compton strain of scrapie obtained as ninth intracerebral passage of the agent in goat brain, from Dr R. L. Chandler (ARC, Compton, Berkshire).
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
IT is of my opinion, that the OIE and the USDA et al, are the soul reason, and responsible parties, for Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy TSE prion diseases, including typical and atypical BSE, typical and atypical Scrapie, and all strains of CWD, and human TSE there from, spreading around the globe.
 
 
 
 
I have lost all confidence of this organization as a regulatory authority on animal disease, and consider it nothing more than a National Trading Brokerage for all strains of animal TSE, just to satisfy there commodity. AS i said before, OIE should hang up there jock strap now, since it appears they will buckle every time a country makes some political hay about trade protocol, commodities and futures. IF they are not going to be science based, they should do everyone a favor and dissolve there organization.
 
 
 
 
JUST because of low documented human body count with nvCJD and the long incubation periods, the lack of sound science being replaced by political and corporate science in relations with the fact that science has now linked some sporadic CJD with atypical BSE and atypical scrapie, and the very real threat of CWD being zoonosis, I believed the O.I.E. has failed terribly and again, I call for this organization to be dissolved. ...
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tuesday, July 17, 2012
 
 
 
 
O.I.E. BSE, CWD, SCRAPIE, TSE PRION DISEASE Final Report of the 80th General Session, 20 - 25 May 2012
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Thursday, December 20, 2012
 
 
 
 
OIE GROUP RECOMMENDS THAT SCRAPE PRION DISEASE BE DELISTED AND SAME OLD BSe WITH BOVINE MAD COW DISEASE
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
TSS

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