SCRAPIE USA

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Location: BACLIFF, Texas, United States

My mother was murdered by what I call corporate and political homicide i.e. FOR PROFIT! she died from a rare phenotype of CJD i.e. the Heidenhain Variant of Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease i.e. sporadic, simply meaning from unknown route and source. I have simply been trying to validate her death DOD 12/14/97 with the truth. There is a route, and there is a source. There are many here in the USA. WE must make CJD and all human TSE, of all age groups 'reportable' Nationally and Internationally, with a written CJD questionnaire asking real questions pertaining to route and source of this agent. Friendly fire has the potential to play a huge role in the continued transmission of this agent via the medical, dental, and surgical arena. We must not flounder any longer. ...TSS

Monday, December 18, 2017

Scrapie Detected on North Iceland Sheep Farm

PLEASE UNDERSTAND, this translation is internet translated...terry


A new riot in Svarfaðardal, a riot for the inhabitants of the country 

Sveinn Arnarsson writes December 18, 2017, 5:00 PM 

Riddar was found in a slaughterhouse from Urður, but MAST investigates thousands of abrasive grafts annually to counteract scurvy which is a very dizzy disease in sheep in Iceland. 

RIDDAR WAS FOUND IN A SLAUGHTERHOUSE FROM URÐUR, BUT MAST INVESTIGATES THOUSANDS OF ABRASIVE GRAFTS ANNUALLY TO COUNTERACT SCURVY WHICH IS A VERY DIZZY DISEASE IN SHEEP IN ICELAND. 

INDICATOR / EYÞÓR Ríða has been discovered in Svarfaðardalur in Eyjafjörður and now for the second time at the town of Urðir, but it took all the money on the farm in 2003. 

This is the fifteenth confirmation of the crash case that occurred in the last fifteen years. During this time, seven cases have occurred in Skagafjörður, two in Húnaþing west, four in southern Iceland and two cases have occurred in Svarfaðardalur. 

Rottweiler has played sheep farming in Svarfaðardalur very gray so mildly speaking. By the end of the 1980s all the money in the valley was cut and the valley was funded for one year. Some farms were asked for three years to take new funds for protection against infection. Back in the mid-1990s more infections occurred and there was money back on a number of farms. Lastly, a rally was confirmed in the country in 2009 at Dæli in Skíðadalur.

Gunnhildur Gylfadóttir, chairman of Eyjafjarður's Equipment Association and a farmer in Svarfaðardal, said this shock to the whole country. 

"This is always a fight," says Gunnhildur. "It's a freak near the heart to get like this and wake up old ghosts to everyone. Our money all goes together in the summer, so farmers ask themselves when their money is reported. " 

She says great emotions in the game. "It's a shock for everyone to get these news. But this is the reality of living in a rainy area. We've taken a lot of time here in the country and in the farm where the rye is now being discovered, it's all up to a point. " 

Riddlewiki is believed to have been brought to Iceland by an English ram, which was transported to Skagafjörður in 1878 and has since been extremely difficult handling. Cervical disease is a contagious cerebrovascular disease and infected with so-called unhealthy prion proteins. As soon as they enter the body of unseen animals, the proteins begin to transform other Prion proteins. 

Last fall, two rallies were held in Skagafjörður, and three cases were confirmed in 2015, both in Skagafjörður and in the Western Húnaþing. Smit has not been found in South Iceland since 2010.

The residents of Svarfaðardal did not want to comment on the matter with journalists after searching. Cause this is a lot of shock and has to cut all the money on the farm and go into extensive construction to minimize the risk of recurrence of the infection. Replacing soil around the house, burning all the wood in the outdoors and cutting all the money.





Using in vitro prion replication for high sensitive detection of prions and prionlike proteins and for understanding mechanisms of transmission. 
 
Claudio Soto Mitchell Center for Alzheimer's diseases and related Brain disorders, Department of Neurology, University of Texas Medical School at Houston. 
 
***Recently, we have been using PMCA to study the role of environmental prion contamination on the horizontal spreading of TSEs. These experiments have focused on the study of the interaction of prions with plants and environmentally relevant surfaces. Our results show that plants (both leaves and roots) bind tightly to prions present in brain extracts and excreta (urine and feces) and retain even small quantities of PrPSc for long periods of time. Strikingly, ingestion of prioncontaminated leaves and roots produced disease with a 100% attack rate and an incubation period not substantially longer than feeding animals directly with scrapie brain homogenate. Furthermore, plants can uptake prions from contaminated soil and transport them to different parts of the plant tissue (stem and leaves). Similarly, prions bind tightly to a variety of environmentally relevant surfaces, including stones, wood, metals, plastic, glass, cement, etc. Prion contaminated surfaces efficiently transmit prion disease when these materials were directly injected into the brain of animals and strikingly when the contaminated surfaces were just placed in the animal cage. These findings demonstrate that environmental materials can efficiently bind infectious prions and act as carriers of infectivity, suggesting that they may play an important role in the horizontal transmission of the disease. 
 
======================== 
 
Since its invention 13 years ago, PMCA has helped to answer fundamental questions of prion propagation and has broad applications in research areas including the food industry, blood bank safety and human and veterinary disease diagnosis. 
 
 
 
In conclusion, the results in the current study indicate that removal of furniture that had been in contact with scrapie-infected animals should be recommended, particularly since cleaning and decontamination may not effectively remove scrapie infectivity (31), even though infectivity declines considerably if the pasture and the field furniture have not been in contact with scrapie-infected sheep for several months. As sPMCA failed to detect PrPSc in furniture that was subjected to weathering, even though exposure led to infection in sheep, this method may not always be reliable in predicting the risk of scrapie infection through environmental contamination. These results suggest that the VRQ/VRQ sheep model may be more sensitive than sPMCA for the detection of environmentally associated scrapie, and suggest that extremely low levels of scrapie contamination are able to cause infection in susceptible sheep genotypes. 
 
Keywords: classical scrapie, prion, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, sheep, field furniture, reservoir, serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification 
 
 
Wednesday, December 16, 2015 
 
*** Objects in contact with classical scrapie sheep act as a reservoir for scrapie transmission *** 
 
 
*** Infectious agent of sheep scrapie may persist in the environment for at least 16 years *** 
 
Gudmundur Georgsson1, Sigurdur Sigurdarson2 and Paul Brown3 
 
 

SCRAPIE TSE PRION ZOONOSIS ZOONOTIC DISEASE

SPONTANEOUS ATYPICAL BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY

***Moreover, sporadic disease has never been observed in breeding colonies or primate research laboratories, most notably among hundreds of animals over several decades of study at the National Institutes of Health25, and in nearly twenty older animals continuously housed in our own facility.***

Transmission of scrapie prions to primate after an extended silent incubation period

Emmanuel E. Comoy, Jacqueline Mikol, Sophie Luccantoni-Freire, Evelyne Correia, Nathalie Lescoutra-Etchegaray, Valérie Durand, Capucine Dehen, Olivier Andreoletti, Cristina Casalone, Juergen A. Richt, Justin J. Greenlee, Thierry Baron, Sylvie L. Benestad, Paul Brown & Jean-Philippe Deslys

Scientific Reports 5, Article number: 11573 (2015)

doi:10.1038/srep11573

Download Citation

EpidemiologyNeurological manifestationsPrion diseases

Received:

16 February 2015

Accepted:

28 May 2015

Published online:

30 June 2015

Abstract

Classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (c-BSE) is the only animal prion disease reputed to be zoonotic, causing variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans and having guided protective measures for animal and human health against animal prion diseases. Recently, partial transmissions to humanized mice showed that the zoonotic potential of scrapie might be similar to c-BSE. We here report the direct transmission of a natural classical scrapie isolate to cynomolgus macaque, a highly relevant model for human prion diseases, after a 10-year silent incubation period, with features similar to those reported for human cases of sporadic CJD. Scrapie is thus actually transmissible to primates with incubation periods compatible with their life expectancy, although fourfold longer than BSE. Long-term experimental transmission studies are necessary to better assess the zoonotic potential of other prion diseases with high prevalence, notably Chronic Wasting Disease of deer and elk and atypical/Nor98 scrapie.

SNIP...

In addition to previous studies on scrapie transmission to primate1,8,9 and the recently published study on transgenic humanized mice13, our results constitute new evidence for recommending that the potential risk of scrapie for human health should not be dismissed. Indeed, human PrP transgenic mice and primates are the most relevant models for investigating the human transmission barrier. To what extent such models are informative for measuring the zoonotic potential of an animal TSE under field exposure conditions is unknown. During the past decades, many protective measures have been successfully implemented to protect cattle from the spread of c-BSE, and some of these measures have been extended to sheep and goats to protect from scrapie according to the principle of precaution. Since cases of c-BSE have greatly reduced in number, those protective measures are currently being challenged and relaxed in the absence of other known zoonotic animal prion disease. We recommend that risk managers should be aware of the long term potential risk to human health of at least certain scrapie isolates, notably for lymphotropic strains like the classical scrapie strain used in the current study. Relatively high amounts of infectivity in peripheral lymphoid organs in animals infected with these strains could lead to contamination of food products produced for human consumption. Efforts should also be maintained to further assess the zoonotic potential of other animal prion strains in long-term studies, notably lymphotropic strains with high prevalence like CWD, which is spreading across North America, and atypical/Nor98 scrapie (Nor98)50 that was first detected in the past two decades and now represents approximately half of all reported cases of prion diseases in small ruminants worldwide, including territories previously considered as scrapie free. Even if the prevailing view is that sporadic CJD is due to the spontaneous formation of CJD prions, it remains possible that its apparent sporadic nature may, at least in part, result from our limited capacity to identify an environmental origin.


O.05: Transmission of prions to primates after extended silent incubation periods: Implications for BSE and scrapie risk assessment in human populations
 
Emmanuel Comoy, Jacqueline Mikol, Valerie Durand, Sophie Luccantoni, Evelyne Correia, Nathalie Lescoutra, Capucine Dehen, and Jean-Philippe Deslys Atomic Energy Commission; Fontenay-aux-Roses, France
 
Prion diseases (PD) are the unique neurodegenerative proteinopathies reputed to be transmissible under field conditions since decades. The transmission of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) to humans evidenced that an animal PD might be zoonotic under appropriate conditions. Contrarily, in the absence of obvious (epidemiological or experimental) elements supporting a transmission or genetic predispositions, PD, like the other proteinopathies, are reputed to occur spontaneously (atpical animal prion strains, sporadic CJD summing 80% of human prion cases). Non-human primate models provided the first evidences supporting the transmissibiity of human prion strains and the zoonotic potential of BSE. Among them, cynomolgus macaques brought major information for BSE risk assessment for human health (Chen, 2014), according to their phylogenetic proximity to humans and extended lifetime. We used this model to assess the zoonotic potential of other animal PD from bovine, ovine and cervid origins even after very long silent incubation periods.
 
*** We recently observed the direct transmission of a natural classical scrapie isolate to macaque after a 10-year silent incubation period,
 
***with features similar to some reported for human cases of sporadic CJD, albeit requiring fourfold long incubation than BSE. Scrapie, as recently evoked in humanized mice (Cassard, 2014),
 
***is the third potentially zoonotic PD (with BSE and L-type BSE),
 
***thus questioning the origin of human sporadic cases. 

We will present an updated panorama of our different transmission studies and discuss the implications of such extended incubation periods on risk assessment of animal PD for human health.
 
===============
 
***thus questioning the origin of human sporadic cases***
 
===============
 
***our findings suggest that possible transmission risk of H-type BSE to sheep and human. Bioassay will be required to determine whether the PMCA products are infectious to these animals.
 
==============
 
 
 Transmission data also revealed that several scrapie prions propagate in HuPrP-Tg mice with efficiency comparable to that of cattle BSE. While the efficiency of transmission at primary passage was low, subsequent passages resulted in a highly virulent prion disease in both Met129 and Val129 mice. Transmission of the different scrapie isolates in these mice leads to the emergence of prion strain phenotypes that showed similar characteristics to those displayed by MM1 or VV2 sCJD prion. These results demonstrate that scrapie prions have a zoonotic potential and raise new questions about the possible link between animal and human prions.
 

Saturday, April 23, 2016

PRION 2016 TOKYO

Saturday, April 23, 2016

SCRAPIE WS-01: Prion diseases in animals and zoonotic potential 2016

Prion. 10:S15-S21. 2016 ISSN: 1933-6896 printl 1933-690X online

Taylor & Francis

Prion 2016 Animal Prion Disease Workshop Abstracts

WS-01: Prion diseases in animals and zoonotic potential

Juan Maria Torres a, Olivier Andreoletti b, J uan-Carlos Espinosa a. Vincent Beringue c. Patricia Aguilar a,

Natalia Fernandez-Borges a. and Alba Marin-Moreno a

"Centro de Investigacion en Sanidad Animal ( CISA-INIA ). Valdeolmos, Madrid. Spain; b UMR INRA -ENVT 1225 Interactions Holes Agents Pathogenes. ENVT. Toulouse. France: "UR892. Virologie lmmunologie MolécuIaires, Jouy-en-Josas. France

Dietary exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) contaminated bovine tissues is considered as the origin of variant Creutzfeldt Jakob (vCJD) disease in human. To date, BSE agent is the only recognized zoonotic prion. Despite the variety of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE) agents that have been circulating for centuries in farmed ruminants there is no apparent epidemiological link between exposure to ruminant products and the occurrence of other form of TSE in human like sporadic Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease (sCJD). However, the zoonotic potential of the diversity of circulating TSE agents has never been systematically assessed. The major issue in experimental assessment of TSEs zoonotic potential lies in the modeling of the ‘species barrier‘, the biological phenomenon that limits TSE agents’ propagation from a species to another. In the last decade, mice genetically engineered to express normal forms of the human prion protein has proved essential in studying human prions pathogenesis and modeling the capacity of TSEs to cross the human species barrier.

To assess the zoonotic potential of prions circulating in farmed ruminants, we study their transmission ability in transgenic mice expressing human PrPC (HuPrP-Tg). Two lines of mice expressing different forms of the human PrPC (129Met or 129Val) are used to determine the role of the Met129Val dimorphism in susceptibility/resistance to the different agents.

These transmission experiments confirm the ability of BSE prions to propagate in 129M- HuPrP-Tg mice and demonstrate that Met129 homozygotes may be susceptible to BSE in sheep or goat to a greater degree than the BSE agent in cattle and that these agents can convey molecular properties and neuropathological indistinguishable from vCJD. However homozygous 129V mice are resistant to all tested BSE derived prions independently of the originating species suggesting a higher transmission barrier for 129V-PrP variant.

Transmission data also revealed that several scrapie prions propagate in HuPrP-Tg mice with efficiency comparable to that of cattle BSE. While the efficiency of transmission at primary passage was low, subsequent passages resulted in a highly virulent prion disease in both Met129 and Val129 mice. Transmission of the different scrapie isolates in these mice leads to the emergence of prion strain phenotypes that showed similar characteristics to those displayed by MM1 or VV2 sCJD prion. These results demonstrate that scrapie prions have a zoonotic potential and raise new questions about the possible link between animal and human prions. 


Title: Transmission of scrapie prions to primate after an extended silent incubation period) 

*** In complement to the recent demonstration that humanized mice are susceptible to scrapie, we report here the first observation of direct transmission of a natural classical scrapie isolate to a macaque after a 10-year incubation period. Neuropathologic examination revealed all of the features of a prion disease: spongiform change, neuronal loss, and accumulation of PrPres throughout the CNS. 

*** This observation strengthens the questioning of the harmlessness of scrapie to humans, at a time when protective measures for human and animal health are being dismantled and reduced as c-BSE is considered controlled and being eradicated. 

*** Our results underscore the importance of precautionary and protective measures and the necessity for long-term experimental transmission studies to assess the zoonotic potential of other animal prion strains. 


SCRAPIE WS-01: Prion diseases in animals and zoonotic potential 2016 

Prion. 10:S15-S21. 2016 ISSN: 1933-6896 printl 1933-690X online 




Transmission of scrapie prions to primate after an extended silent incubation period

Emmanuel E. Comoy, Jacqueline Mikol, Sophie Luccantoni-Freire, Evelyne Correia, Nathalie Lescoutra-Etchegaray, Valérie Durand, Capucine Dehen, Olivier Andreoletti, Cristina Casalone, Juergen A. Richt, Justin J. Greenlee, Thierry Baron, Sylvie L. Benestad, Paul Brown & Jean-Philippe Deslys Scientific Reports 5, Article number: 11573 (2015)

doi:10.1038/srep11573

Download Citation

EpidemiologyNeurological manifestationsPrion diseases

Received: 16 February 2015

Accepted: 28 May 2015

Published online: 30 June 2015

Abstract

Classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (c-BSE) is the only animal prion disease reputed to be zoonotic, causing variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans and having guided protective measures for animal and human health against animal prion diseases. Recently, partial transmissions to humanized mice showed that the zoonotic potential of scrapie might be similar to c-BSE. We here report the direct transmission of a natural classical scrapie isolate to cynomolgus macaque, a highly relevant model for human prion diseases, after a 10-year silent incubation period, with features similar to those reported for human cases of sporadic CJD. Scrapie is thus actually transmissible to primates with incubation periods compatible with their life expectancy, although fourfold longer than BSE. Long-term experimental transmission studies are necessary to better assess the zoonotic potential of other prion diseases with high prevalence, notably Chronic Wasting Disease of deer and elk and atypical/Nor98 scrapie.

snip...

In addition to previous studies on scrapie transmission to primate1,8,9 and the recently published study on transgenic humanized mice13, our results constitute new evidence for recommending that the potential risk of scrapie for human health should not be dismissed. Indeed, human PrP transgenic mice and primates are the most relevant models for investigating the human transmission barrier. To what extent such models are informative for measuring the zoonotic potential of an animal TSE under field exposure conditions is unknown. During the past decades, many protective measures have been successfully implemented to protect cattle from the spread of c-BSE, and some of these measures have been extended to sheep and goats to protect from scrapie according to the principle of precaution. Since cases of c-BSE have greatly reduced in number, those protective measures are currently being challenged and relaxed in the absence of other known zoonotic animal prion disease. We recommend that risk managers should be aware of the long term potential risk to human health of at least certain scrapie isolates, notably for lymphotropic strains like the classical scrapie strain used in the current study. Relatively high amounts of infectivity in peripheral lymphoid organs in animals infected with these strains could lead to contamination of food products produced for human consumption. Efforts should also be maintained to further assess the zoonotic potential of other animal prion strains in long-term studies, notably lymphotropic strains with high prevalence like CWD, which is spreading across North America, and atypical/Nor98 scrapie (Nor98)50 that was first detected in the past two decades and now represents approximately half of all reported cases of prion diseases in small ruminants worldwide, including territories previously considered as scrapie free. Even if the prevailing view is that sporadic CJD is due to the spontaneous formation of CJD prions, it remains possible that its apparent sporadic nature may, at least in part, result from our limited capacity to identify an environmental origin.

SPONTANEOUS ATYPICAL BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY

***Moreover, sporadic disease has never been observed in breeding colonies or primate research laboratories, most notably among hundreds of animals over several decades of study at the National Institutes of Health25, and in nearly twenty older animals continuously housed in our own facility.***


SPONTANEOUS ATYPICAL BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY

***Moreover, sporadic disease has never been observed in breeding colonies or primate research laboratories, most notably among hundreds of animals over several decades of study at the National Institutes of Health25, and in nearly twenty older animals continuously housed in our own facility.***


IN CONFIDENCE

why do we not want to do TSE transmission studies on chimpanzees $

5. A positive result from a chimpanzee challenged severly would likely create alarm in some circles even if the result could not be interpreted for man. I have a view that all these agents could be transmitted provided a large enough dose by appropriate routes was given and the animals kept long enough. Until the mechanisms of the species barrier are more clearly understood it might be best to retain that hypothesis.

snip...

R. BRADLEY


1: J Infect Dis 1980 Aug;142(2):205-8

Oral transmission of kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and scrapie to nonhuman primates.

Gibbs CJ Jr, Amyx HL, Bacote A, Masters CL, Gajdusek DC.

Kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease of humans and scrapie disease of sheep and goats were transmitted to squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) that were exposed to the infectious agents only by their nonforced consumption of known infectious tissues. The asymptomatic incubation period in the one monkey exposed to the virus of kuru was 36 months; that in the two monkeys exposed to the virus of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was 23 and 27 months, respectively; and that in the two monkeys exposed to the virus of scrapie was 25 and 32 months, respectively. Careful physical examination of the buccal cavities of all of the monkeys failed to reveal signs or oral lesions. One additional monkey similarly exposed to kuru has remained asymptomatic during the 39 months that it has been under observation.

snip...

The successful transmission of kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and scrapie by natural feeding to squirrel monkeys that we have reported provides further grounds for concern that scrapie-infected meat may occasionally give rise in humans to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

PMID: 6997404


Recently the question has again been brought up as to whether scrapie is transmissible to man. This has followed reports that the disease has been transmitted to primates. One particularly lurid speculation (Gajdusek 1977) conjectures that the agents of scrapie, kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and transmissible encephalopathy of mink are varieties of a single "virus". The U.S. Department of Agriculture concluded that it could "no longer justify or permit scrapie-blood line and scrapie-exposed sheep and goats to be processed for human or animal food at slaughter or rendering plants" (ARC 84/77)" The problem is emphasised by the finding that some strains of scrapie produce lesions identical to the once which characterise the human dementias"

Whether true or not. the hypothesis that these agents might be transmissible to man raises two considerations. First, the safety of laboratory personnel requires prompt attention. Second, action such as the "scorched meat" policy of USDA makes the solution of the acrapie problem urgent if the sheep industry is not to suffer grievously.

snip...

76/10.12/4.6


Nature. 1972 Mar 10;236(5341):73-4.

Transmission of scrapie to the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

Gibbs CJ Jr, Gajdusek DC.

Nature 236, 73 - 74 (10 March 1972); doi:10.1038/236073a0

Transmission of Scrapie to the Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

C. J. GIBBS jun. & D. C. GAJDUSEK

National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland

SCRAPIE has been transmitted to the cynomolgus, or crab-eating, monkey (Macaca fascicularis) with an incubation period of more than 5 yr from the time of intracerebral inoculation of scrapie-infected mouse brain. The animal developed a chronic central nervous system degeneration, with ataxia, tremor and myoclonus with associated severe scrapie-like pathology of intensive astroglial hypertrophy and proliferation, neuronal vacuolation and status spongiosus of grey matter. The strain of scrapie virus used was the eighth passage in Swiss mice (NIH) of a Compton strain of scrapie obtained as ninth intracerebral passage of the agent in goat brain, from Dr R. L. Chandler (ARC, Compton, Berkshire).



Wednesday, February 16, 2011

IN CONFIDENCE

SCRAPIE TRANSMISSION TO CHIMPANZEES

IN CONFIDENCE


Sunday, December 12, 2010

EFSA reviews BSE/TSE infectivity in small ruminant tissues News Story 2 December 2010


Sunday, April 18, 2010

SCRAPIE AND ATYPICAL SCRAPIE TRANSMISSION STUDIES A REVIEW 2010


Thursday, December 23, 2010

Molecular Typing of Protease-Resistant Prion Protein in Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies of Small Ruminants, France, 2002-2009

Volume 17, Number 1 January 2011


Thursday, November 18, 2010

Increased susceptibility of human-PrP transgenic mice to bovine spongiform encephalopathy following passage in sheep


FRIDAY, APRIL 22, 2016

Texas Scrapie Confirmed in a Hartley County Sheep where CWD was detected in a Mule Deer

April 22, 2016

Scrapie Confirmed in a Hartley County Sheep

AUSTIN - Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC) officials have confirmed scrapie in a Hartley County ewe. The ewe was tested by TAHC after the owner reported signs of weight loss and lack of coordination to their local veterinarian. The premises was quarantined and a flock plan for monitoring is being developed by the TAHC and USDA.

"The TAHC is working closely with the flock owner, sharing all of the options for disease eradication," said Dr. David Finch, TAHC Region 1 Director. "We are thankful the producer was proactive in identifying a problem and seeking veterinary help immediately."

Texas leads the nation in sheep and goat production. Since 2008, there have been no confirmed cases of scrapie in Texas. The last big spike in Texas scrapie cases was in 2006 when nine infected herds were identified and the last herd was released from restrictions in 2013.

According to USDA regulations, Texas must conduct adequate scrapie surveillance by collecting a minimum of 598 sheep samples annually. Since USDA slaughter surveillance started in FY 2003, the percent of cull sheep found positive for scrapieat slaughter (once adjusted for face color) has decreased 90 percent.

Scrapie is the oldest known transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, and under natural conditions only sheep and goats are known to be affected by scrapie. It is a fatal disease that affects the central nervous system of sheep and goats. It is not completely understood how scrapie is passed from one animal to the next and apparently healthy sheep infected with scrapie can spread the disease. Sheep and goats are typically infected as young lambs or kids, though adult sheep and goats can become infected.

The most effective method of scrapie prevention is to maintain a closed flock. Raising replacement ewes, purchasing genetically resistant rams and ewes,or buying from a certified-free scrapie flock are other options to reduce the risk of scrapie. At this time the resistant genetic markers in goats have not been identified, therefore it is important to maintain your sheep and goat herds separately.

The incubation period for Scrapie is typically two to five years. Producers should record individual identification numbers and the seller's premise identification number on purchase and sales records. These records must be maintained for a minimum of five years.

Producers should notify the Texas Animal Health Commission (800-550-8242) or the USDA-Austin Office (512-383-2400) if they have an adult sheep or goat with neurologic signs such as incoordination, behavioral changes, or intense itching with wool loss. Producers may order scrapie identification tags by calling 866-873-2824. For more information, please visit our website at:


###


TEXAS Sheep and Goats

• Most recent scrapie positive animal in Texas was found in April, 2008.

• USDA-APHIS-VS set the national goal for surveillance at 46,000 traceable, mature sheep or goats. Target for Texas is 1,472.

• The Scrapie Program Review is being scheduled for this summer. No problems expected.



Thursday, June 09, 2016 

Scrapie Field Trial Experiments Mission, Texas, The Moore Air Force Base Scrapie TSE Prion Experiment 1964 

How Did CWD Get Way Down In Medina County, Texas? 

DISCUSSION

Observations of natural outbreaks of scrapie indicated that the disease spread from flock to flock by the movement of infected, but apparently normal, sheep which were incubating the disease. 

There was no evidence that the disease spread to adjacent flocks in the absent of such movements or that vectors or other host species were involved in the spread of scrapie to sheep or goats; however, these possibilities should be kept open...???

Scrapie Field Trial Experiments Mission, Texas

A Scrapie Field Trial was developed at Mission, Texas, to provide additional information for the eradication program on the epidemiology of natural scrapie. The Mission Field Trial Station is located on 450 acres of pastureland, part of the former Moore Air Force Base, near Mission, Texas. It was designed to bring previously exposed, and later also unexposed, sheep or goats to the Station and maintain and breed them under close observation for extended periods to determine which animals would develop scrapie and define more closely the natural spread and other epidemiological aspects of the disease.

The 547 previously exposed sheep brought to the Mission Station beginning in 1964 were of the Cheviot, Hampshire, Montadale, or Suffolk breeds. They were purchased as field outbreaks occurred, and represented 21 bloodlines in which scrapie had been diagnosed. Upon arrival at the Station, the sheep were maintained on pasture, with supplemental feeding as necessary. The station was divided into 2 areas: (1) a series of pastures and-pens occupied by male animals only, and (2) a series of pastures and pens occupied by females and young progeny of both sexes. ...

snip...see full text ;






MAD SHEEP OF MAD RIVER VALLEY THE HISTORY AND TRUE
 
STORY

 
A FALSE FLAG OPERATION BY THE USDA FEDERAL 

GOVERNMENT
 
 
Friday, February 20, 2015
 
***APHIS Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Appeal Mouse Bio-Assays 2007-00030-A Sheep Imported From Belgium and the Presence of TSE Prion Disease Kevin Shea to Singeltary 2015
 


Friday, February 11, 2011

Atypical/Nor98 Scrapie Infectivity in Sheep Peripheral Tissues

snip...

The presence of infectivity in peripheral tissues that enter the food chain clearly indicates that the risk of dietary exposure to Atypical/Nor98 scrapie cannot be disregarded. However, according to our observations, in comparison to the brain, the infectious titres in the peripheral tissues were five log10 lower in Atypical/Nor98 scrapie than in classical scrapie. Therefore, the reduction of the relative exposure risk following SRM removal (CNS, head, spleen and ileum) is probably significantly higher in Atypical/Nor98 scrapie cases than in classical scrapie cases. However, considering the currently estimated prevalence of Atypical/Nor98 scrapie in healthy slaughtered EU population [10], it is probable that atypical scrapie infectivity enters in the food chain despite the prevention measures in force.

Finally, the capacity of Atypical/Nor98 scrapie agent (and more generally of small ruminants TSE agents) to cross species barrier that naturally limits the transmission risk is insufficiently documented. Recently, the transmission of an Atypical/Nor98 scrapie isolate was reported into transgenic mice over-expressing the porcine PrP [47]. Such results cannot directly be extrapolated to natural exposure conditions and natural hosts. However, they underline the urgent need for further investigations on the potential capacity of Atypical/Nor98 scrapie to propagate in other species than small ruminants.

snip...please see full text thanks to the Authors and plospathogens.org/


PR-26

NOR98 SHOWS MOLECULAR FEATURES REMINISCENT OF GSS

R. Nonno1, E. Esposito1, G. Vaccari1, E. Bandino2, M. Conte1, B. Chiappini1, S. Marcon1, M. Di Bari1, S.L. Benestad3, U. Agrimi1 1 Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Department of Food Safety and Veterinary Public Health, Rome, Italy (romolo.nonno@iss.it); 2 Istituto Zooprofilattico della Sardegna, Sassari, Italy; 3 National Veterinary Institute, Department of Pathology, Oslo, Norway

Molecular variants of PrPSc are being increasingly investigated in sheep scrapie and are generally referred to as “atypical” scrapie, as opposed to “classical scrapie”. Among the atypical group, Nor98 seems to be the best identified. We studied the molecular properties of Italian and Norwegian Nor98 samples by WB analysis of brain homogenates, either untreated, digested with different concentrations of proteinase K, or subjected to enzymatic deglycosylation. The identity of PrP fragments was inferred by means of antibodies spanning the full PrP sequence. We found that undigested brain homogenates contain a Nor98-specific PrP fragment migrating at 11 kDa (PrP11), truncated at both the C-terminus and the N-terminus, and not N-glycosylated. After mild PK digestion, Nor98 displayed full-length PrP (FL-PrP) and N-glycosylated C-terminal fragments (CTF), along with increased levels of PrP11. Proteinase K digestion curves (0,006-6,4 mg/ml) showed that FL-PrP and CTF are mainly digested above 0,01 mg/ml, while PrP11 is not entirely digested even at the highest concentrations, similarly to PrP27-30 associated with classical scrapie. Above 0,2 mg/ml PK, most Nor98 samples showed only PrP11 and a fragment of 17 kDa with the same properties of PrP11, that was tentatively identified as a dimer of PrP11. Detergent solubility studies showed that PrP11 is insoluble in 2% sodium laurylsorcosine and is mainly produced from detergentsoluble, full-length PrPSc. Furthermore, among Italian scrapie isolates, we found that a sample with molecular and pathological properties consistent with Nor98 showed plaque-like deposits of PrPSc in the thalamus when the brain was analysed by PrPSc immunohistochemistry. Taken together, our results show that the distinctive pathological feature of Nor98 is a PrP fragment spanning amino acids ~ 90-155. This fragment is produced by successive N-terminal and C-terminal cleavages from a full-length and largely detergent-soluble PrPSc, is produced in vivo and is extremely resistant to PK digestion. Intriguingly, these conclusions suggest that some pathological features of Nor98 are reminiscent of Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease.

119


P03.141

Aspects of the Cerebellar Neuropathology in Nor98

Gavier-Widén, D1; Benestad, SL2; Ottander, L1; Westergren, E1 1National Veterinary Insitute, Sweden; 2National Veterinary Institute,

Norway Nor98 is a prion disease of old sheep and goats. This atypical form of scrapie was first described in Norway in 1998. Several features of Nor98 were shown to be different from classical scrapie including the distribution of disease associated prion protein (PrPd) accumulation in the brain. The cerebellum is generally the most affected brain area in Nor98. The study here presented aimed at adding information on the neuropathology in the cerebellum of Nor98 naturally affected sheep of various genotypes in Sweden and Norway. A panel of histochemical and immunohistochemical (IHC) stainings such as IHC for PrPd, synaptophysin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, amyloid, and cell markers for phagocytic cells were conducted. The type of histological lesions and tissue reactions were evaluated. The types of PrPd deposition were characterized. The cerebellar cortex was regularly affected, even though there was a variation in the severity of the lesions from case to case. Neuropil vacuolation was more marked in the molecular layer, but affected also the granular cell layer. There was a loss of granule cells. Punctate deposition of PrPd was characteristic. It was morphologically and in distribution identical with that of synaptophysin, suggesting that PrPd accumulates in the synaptic structures. PrPd was also observed in the granule cell layer and in the white matter. The pathology features of Nor98 in the cerebellum of the affected sheep showed similarities with those of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans.


A newly identified type of scrapie agent can naturally infect sheep with resistant PrP genotypes

Annick Le Dur*,?, Vincent Béringue*,?, Olivier Andréoletti?, Fabienne Reine*, Thanh Lan Laï*, Thierry Baron§, Bjørn Bratberg¶, Jean-Luc Vilotte?, Pierre Sarradin**, Sylvie L. Benestad¶, and Hubert Laude*,?? +Author Affiliations

*Virologie Immunologie Moléculaires and ?Génétique Biochimique et Cytogénétique, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 78350 Jouy-en-Josas, France; ?Unité Mixte de Recherche, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique-Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Toulouse, Interactions Hôte Agent Pathogène, 31066 Toulouse, France; §Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire des Aliments, Unité Agents Transmissibles Non Conventionnels, 69364 Lyon, France; **Pathologie Infectieuse et Immunologie, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 37380 Nouzilly, France; and ¶Department of Pathology, National Veterinary Institute, 0033 Oslo, Norway

Edited by Stanley B. Prusiner, University of California, San Francisco, CA (received for review March 21, 2005)

Abstract Scrapie in small ruminants belongs to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), or prion diseases, a family of fatal neurodegenerative disorders that affect humans and animals and can transmit within and between species by ingestion or inoculation. Conversion of the host-encoded prion protein (PrP), normal cellular PrP (PrPc), into a misfolded form, abnormal PrP (PrPSc), plays a key role in TSE transmission and pathogenesis. The intensified surveillance of scrapie in the European Union, together with the improvement of PrPSc detection techniques, has led to the discovery of a growing number of so-called atypical scrapie cases. These include clinical Nor98 cases first identified in Norwegian sheep on the basis of unusual pathological and PrPSc molecular features and "cases" that produced discordant responses in the rapid tests currently applied to the large-scale random screening of slaughtered or fallen animals. Worryingly, a substantial proportion of such cases involved sheep with PrP genotypes known until now to confer natural resistance to conventional scrapie. Here we report that both Nor98 and discordant cases, including three sheep homozygous for the resistant PrPARR allele (A136R154R171), efficiently transmitted the disease to transgenic mice expressing ovine PrP, and that they shared unique biological and biochemical features upon propagation in mice. These observations support the view that a truly infectious TSE agent, unrecognized until recently, infects sheep and goat flocks and may have important implications in terms of scrapie control and public health.


Monday, December 1, 2008

When Atypical Scrapie cross species barriers

Authors

Andreoletti O., Herva M. H., Cassard H., Espinosa J. C., Lacroux C., Simon S., Padilla D., Benestad S. L., Lantier F., Schelcher F., Grassi J., Torres, J. M., UMR INRA ENVT 1225, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Toulouse.France; ICISA-INlA, Madrid, Spain; CEA, IBiTec-5, DSV, CEA/Saclay, Gif sur Yvette cedex, France; National Veterinary Institute, Postboks 750 Sentrum, 0106 Oslo, Norway, INRA IASP, Centre INRA de Tours, 3738O Nouzilly, France.

Content

Atypical scrapie is a TSE occurring in small ruminants and harbouring peculiar clinical, epidemiological and biochemical properties. Currently this form of disease is identified in a large number of countries. In this study we report the transmission of an atypical scrapie isolate through different species barriers as modeled by transgenic mice (Tg) expressing different species PRP sequence.

The donor isolate was collected in 1995 in a French commercial sheep flock. inoculation into AHQ/AHQ sheep induced a disease which had all neuro-pathological and biochemical characteristics of atypical scrapie. Transmitted into Transgenic mice expressing either ovine or PrPc, the isolate retained all the described characteristics of atypical scrapie.

Surprisingly the TSE agent characteristics were dramatically different v/hen passaged into Tg bovine mice. The recovered TSE agent had biological and biochemical characteristics similar to those of atypical BSE L in the same mouse model. Moreover, whereas no other TSE agent than BSE were shown to transmit into Tg porcine mice, atypical scrapie was able to develop into this model, albeit with low attack rate on first passage.

Furthermore, after adaptation in the porcine mouse model this prion showed similar biological and biochemical characteristics than BSE adapted to this porcine mouse model. Altogether these data indicate.

(i) the unsuspected potential abilities of atypical scrapie to cross species barriers

(ii) the possible capacity of this agent to acquire new characteristics when crossing species barrier

These findings raise some interrogation on the concept of TSE strain and on the origin of the diversity of the TSE agents and could have consequences on field TSE control measures.


P.5.21

Parallels between different forms of sheep scrapie and types of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)

Wiebke M. Wemheuer1, Sylvie L. Benestad2, Arne Wrede1, Wilhelm E. Wemheuer3, Tatjana Pfander1, Bjørn Bratberg2, Bertram Brenig3,Walter J. Schulz-Schaeffer1 1University Medical Center Goettingen, Germany; 2Institute of Veterinary Medicine Oslo, Norway; 3Institute of Veterinary Medicine Goettingen, Germany

Background: Scrapie in sheep and goats is often regarded as the archetype of prion diseases. In 1998, a new form of scrapie - atypical/Nor98 scrapie - was described that differed from classical scrapie in terms of epidemiology, Western blot profile, the distribution of pathological prion protein (PrPSc) in the body and its stability against proteinase K. In a similar way, distinct disease types exist in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). They differ with regard to their clinical outcome, Western blot profile and PrPSc deposition pattern in the central nervous system (CNS).

Objectives: The comparison of PrPSc deposits in sheep scrapie and human sporadic CJD.

Methods: Tissues of the CNS of sheep with classical scrapie, sheep with atypical/Nor98 scrapie and 20 patients with sporadic CJD were examined using the sensitive Paraffin Embedded Tissue (PET) blot method. The results were compared with those obtained by immunohistochemistry. With the objective of gaining information on the protein conformation, the PrPSc of classical and atypical/Nor98 sheep scrapie and sporadic CJD was tested for its stability against denaturation with guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) using a Membrane Adsorption Assay.

Results: The PrPSc of atypical/Nor98 scrapie cases and of CJD prion type 1 patients exhibits a mainly reticular/synaptic deposition pattern in the brain and is relatively sensitive to denaturation with GdnHCl. In contrast classical scrapie cases and CJD prion type 2 patients have a more complex PrPSc deposition pattern in common that consists of larger PrPSc aggregates and the PrPSc itself is comparatively stable against denaturation.

Discussion: The similarity between CJD types and scrapie types indicates that at least two comparable forms of the misfolded prion protein exist beyond species barriers and can elicit prion diseases. It seems therefore reasonable to classify classical and atypical/Nor98 scrapie - in analogy to the existing CJD types - as different scrapie types.




APHIS USDA atypical Nor-98 Scrapie

Nor98‐like (nonclassical) scrapie and classical scrapie are separate diseases with distinct features.

Transmission 

Classical scrapie is an infectious disease that is transmitted to other sheep and goats under natural conditions.

Nor98‐like scrapie is either not transmitted or is poorly transmitted, under natural conditions. Many scientists believe that Nor98‐like scrapie is not an infectious disease under natural conditions and that it is instead caused by a random conversion of the normal prion protein into the abnormal form (often referred to as “sporadic”). 


MONDAY, NOVEMBER 30, 2009 

*** USDA AND OIE COLLABORATE TO EXCLUDE ATYPICAL SCRAPIE NOR-98 ANIMAL HEALTH CODE ***



Nor-98 atypical Scrapie Transmission Studies Review

 
MONDAY, APRIL 25, 2011 

Experimental Oral Transmission of Atypical Scrapie to Sheep

Volume 17, Number 5–May 2011 

Research 

Experimental Oral Transmission of Atypical Scrapie to Sheep 

Marion M. Simmons, S. Jo Moore,1 Timm Konold, Lisa Thurston, Linda A. Terry, Leigh Thorne, Richard Lockey, Chris Vickery, Stephen A.C. Hawkins, Melanie J. Chaplin, and John Spiropoulos –Weybridge, Addlestone, UK

Suggested citation for this article

Abstract 

To investigate the possibility of oral transmission of atypical scrapie in sheep and determine the distribution of infectivity in the animals' peripheral tissues, we challenged neonatal lambs orally with atypical scrapie; they were then killed at 12 or 24 months. Screening test results were negative for disease-specific prion protein in all but 2 recipients; they had positive results for examination of brain, but negative for peripheral tissues. Infectivity of brain, distal ileum, and spleen from all animals was assessed in mouse bioassays; positive results were obtained from tissues that had negative results on screening. These findings demonstrate that atypical scrapie can be transmitted orally and indicate that it has the potential for natural transmission and iatrogenic spread through animal feed. Detection of infectivity in tissues negative by current surveillance methods indicates that diagnostic sensitivity is suboptimal for atypical scrapie, and potentially infectious material may be able to pass into the human food chain. 

 SNIP... 

Discussion This study is still ongoing and will not be completed until 2012. However, the current interim report documents the successful oral transmission of atypical scrapie, confirms that the disease phenotype is retained following transmission by this route in AHQ/AHQ sheep, and indicates that infectivity can be demonstrated in the gut in the absence of detectable PrPSc at least as early as 12 months after exposure.

One sheep (animal 12) culled at 24 months post inoculation displayed abnormalities in behavior and movement suggestive of atypical scrapie. Signs like ataxia with head tremor and circling have been described in experimental (19) and natural (3,30) disease, which was attributed to lesions in the cerebellum and forebrain, respectively, corresponding with PrPSc accumulation in these areas (20,24).

By contrast, animal 11, which had confirmed atypical scrapie based on postmortem tests, was considered clinically normal. The less severe and limited PrPSc accumulation in the brain of this sheep than in animal 12 may explain the absence of clinical abnormalities, which is supported by our findings in goats with scrapie in which more extensive PrPSc accumulation in the brain was usually associated with a more severe clinical disease (25).

Although all TSEs are transmissible after intracerebral challenge to a susceptible host, only some are infectious under natural conditions. Therefore, it was important from a pathogenesis and disease control perspective to establish whether or not oral transmission can be successful. However, the challenge model in this study exposed animals as neonates, when the esophageal groove is operational and the lambs are physiologically monogastric. Exposure of 3-month-old ruminating animals to similar amounts of positive brain by the oral route have so far not resulted in any clinical disease, with all animals still alive >1,500 days post challenge (M.M. Simmons, unpub. data), but most natural cases have been recorded in animals older than this, so these animals may still progress to disease in the next few years. Since this challenge study in older animals has no time-kill component, and no losses caused by unrelated disease have occurred, whether any of these sheep are in a preclinical phase of disease is unknown. Unfortunately, the absence of detectable PrPSc in lymphoreticular tissues of sheep with atypical scrapie precludes the use of biopsies to ascertain early infection in these animals.

Transmission may be more efficient in newborn animals; the incubation periods of sheep orally infected with classical scrapie were significantly shorter in sheep challenged at 14 days of age than those challenged at 6 months of age (31). If, however, oral transmission is only effective in such young animals, then field exposure would most likely have to be through milk, which is known to be a highly effective route of transmission for classical scrapie (32). No data are currently available on the potential infectivity of milk from animals with atypical scrapie.

Successful oral transmission also raises questions regarding the pathogenesis of this form of disease. There must be passage of the infectious agent from the alimentary canal to the brain through one of several possible routes, most likely those that have been suggested and discussed in detail for other TSEs, for example, retrograde neuronal transportation either directly (33–35) or through lymphoid structures or hematogenously (36). Infectivity in the absence of readily demonstrable PrPSc has been reported (37–39), and although the mouse bioassay may detect evidence of disease in other tissues, these data may not be available for at least another 2 years. More protease-sensitive forms of PrPSc may be broken down more efficiently within cells and thus do not accumulate in peripheral tissues (19), enabling atypical PrPSc to transit the digestive tract and disseminate through other systems in small amounts before accumulating detectably in the central nervous system.

Although we do not have epidemiologic evidence that supports the efficient spread of disease in the field, these data imply that disease is potentially transmissible under field situations and that spread through animal feed may be possible if the current feed restrictions were to be relaxed. Additionally, almost no data are available on the potential for atypical scrapie to transmit to other food animal species, certainly by the oral route. However, work with transgenic mice has demonstrated the potential susceptibility of pigs, with the disturbing finding that the biochemical properties of the resulting PrPSc have changed on transmission (40). The implications of this observation for subsequent transmission and host target range are currently unknown.

How reassuring is this absence of detectable PrPSc from a public health perspective? The bioassays performed in this study are not titrations, so the infectious load of the positive gut tissues cannot be quantified, although infectivity has been shown unequivocally. No experimental data are currently available on the zoonotic potential of atypical scrapie, either through experimental challenge of humanized mice or any meaningful epidemiologic correlation with human forms of TSE. However, the detection of infectivity in the distal ileum of animals as young as 12 months, in which all the tissues tested were negative for PrPSc by the currently available screening and confirmatory diagnostic tests, indicates that the diagnostic sensitivity of current surveillance methods is suboptimal for detecting atypical scrapie and that potentially infectious material may be able to pass into the human food chain undetected. 


''Epidemiological studies indicate that Nor98-like scrapie is either not transmissible or poorly transmissible under natural conditions. Further, the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) has determined that Nor98-like scrapie is distinct from classical scrapie and is not a listed disease of trade concern. Animals in Nor98-like scrapie infected flocks are not removed and are free to move once they have been officially identified.''

LMAO! CAN YOU SAY USDA, OIE, TRADE AND MONEY $$$ 

J Vet Med Sci. 2016 Oct; 78(10): 1619–1624. Published online 2016 Jun 20. doi: 10.1292/jvms.16-0259 PMCID: PMC5095634 

Transmission of atypical scrapie to homozygous ARQ sheep 

Hiroyuki OKADA,1,* Kohtaro MIYAZAWA,1 Morikazu IMAMURA,1 Yoshifumi IWAMARU,1 Kentaro MASUJIN,1 Yuichi MATSUURA,1 and Takashi YOKOYAMA1

snip...

In this study, the estimated infectivity level in skeletal muscle and lymphoid tissues from animals (n = 4) affected with two different classical scrapie isolates did reach up to 1/10 (weight/weight) of the infectivity found in the CNS from terminally affected sheep. These values are higher than those expected from previous work. This could be explained by the fact that previously available data on prion quantities in peripheral tissues of small ruminants (in particular those related to striated muscle) relied on biochemical measurement of PrPScamount [26] and the cell types accumulating PrPSc and the composition of these tissues may have impact on the PrPSc recovery yield. Also, if in some classical scrapie cases a 3–4 log10 infectivity difference was reported between CNS and some lymphoid tissues using bioassay in conventional mice, in other classical scrapie cases, the same study reported that infectivity in lymphoid tissue was only 1 to 10 fold lower than in CNS [27].

The classical scrapie cases that were investigated in this work cannot be assumed to be representative of all field diversity as only four animal cases of highly susceptible genotypes were used. However, the results indicate that exposure risk to such TSE agents through the unrestricted entry in the food chain of potentially infectious tissues would be significantly higher than previously thought.

In most countries, the identification of Atypical/Nor98 scrapie was a consequence of the implementation of an active surveillance for TSE consisting in random testing for PrPScpresence in brainstem of a fraction of fallen or healthy culled small ruminants [10]. In Atypical/Nor98 scrapie cases, the sensitivity of PrPSc detection tests that are used for initial field screening or confirmation of TSE cases is debated. Several authors reported failure to detect PrPSc in some CNS areas like the obex area [5], [6], [20] from known affected animals or discrepancies in results when applying different diagnostic tests to a same sample [6], [10].

The results obtained in this study by comparing the analytical sensitivity of biochemical PrPScdetection (using an OIE registered WB method and a validated rapid screening test for TSE detection, in small ruminants) and bioassay indicated that CNS samples that would contain up to 107.4.–107.7 ID50/g of Atypical/Nor98 scrapie (according to tg338 IC bioassay) could remain negative for PrPSc detection. In field, Atypical/Nor98 scrapie cases (Table 1) PrPSc positive WB was observed in CNS samples in which infectious titre was estimated (on the basis of incubation period) to be higher than 105.8 ID50/g IC in tg338. Such discrepancies might reflect an individual variability of the PrPSc WB detection limits between atypical scrapie cases. It might alternatively be the consequence of a relative imprecision in estimating the titre of low infectious doses by the incubation period bioassay method.

In contrast to Atypical/Nor98 scrapie cases, using two different classical agents the WB PrPScdetection sensitivity limit was about 102 ID50 IC in tg338 (ie a tissue with a titre of 103.7 ID50/g IC in tg338). These differences strongly support the contention that diagnostic assays based on PrPSc detection have lower performance for identifying Atypical/Nor98 scrapie cases than classical scrapie cases. It is consequently highly probable that a significant number of Atypical/Nor98 cases remain undetected by field testing, leading to an underestimation of Atypical/Nor98 scrapie prevalence in the small ruminant population. It is however not possible on the sole basis of this study to evaluate the importance of such underestimation.

The under detection of Atypical/Nor98 scrapie in the field due to the sensitivity of the current PrPSc based approach would also impact on understanding of the biology of this TSE agent.

While under natural conditions, classical scrapie is known to transmit between individuals, the analysis of data collected through the active TSE surveillance program seemed to indicate that Atypical/Nor98 scrapie could be poorly or not transmissible at all. This is based on the lack of statistical difference of the observed Atypical/Nor98 frequencies between the general population and the flocks where a positive case had been identified [38], [39]. The lower ability to detect Atypical Scrapie incubating animals using the PrPSc based methodologies means that this conclusion should be considered with caution.

Atypical/Nor98 cases are identified in older animals in comparison to classical scrapie [6], [40]. The lack of PrPSc detection in peripheral tissues of reported cases suggested that Atypical/Nor98 scrapie agent could be restricted to CNS. This is supportive of the hypothesis that Atypical/Nor98 scrapie could be a spontaneous disorder of PrP folding and metabolism occurring in aged animals without external cause [6], [38].

However, this hypothesis is questioned by the evidence reported here that a negative PrPSctesting result could be observed in animals harbouring high infectious titre in their brain and that the infectious agent can be present in peripheral tissues of Atypical/Nor98 scrapie incubating sheep. TSE are considered to be transmitted following oral exposure; initial uptake is followed by a peripheral replication phase which is generally associated with a dissemination of the agent in the lymphoid system and the deposition of large amounts of PrPSc. This peripheral replication phase is later followed by the entry of the infectious agent into the CNS through the autonomic nervous system [25], [27], [35], [36]. However, in several situations, like BSE in cattle [41], [42], [43] or classical scrapie in ARR heterozygote sheep [44], [45], the involvement of secondary lymphoid system is marginal, which does not preclude central neuro-invasion through the autonomic nervous system [46]. It could be proposed that Atypical Scrapie/Nor98 might occur following oral exposure to a TSE agent, which would spread marginally in lymphoid tissues before neuro-invasion. The slow propagation of Atypical Scrapie/Nor98 in its host (long incubation period) and the impaired detection sensitivity level of PrPSc based assays would explain the apparent old age of detected cases.

The results presented here are insufficient to rule out the hypothesis of a spontaneous/non contagious disorder or to consider this alternative scenario as a plausible hypothesis. Indeed, the presence of Atypical scrapie/Nor98 infectivity in peripheral tissues could be alternatively due to the centripetal spreading of the agent from the CNS. However, our findings point out that further clarifications on Atypical/Nor98 scrapie agent biology are needed before accepting that this TSE is a spontaneous and non contagious disorder of small ruminants. Assessing Atypical/Nor98 scrapie transmissibility through oral route in natural host and presence in placenta and in colostrum/milk (which are considered as major sources for TSE transmission between small ruminants) [28], [32] will provide crucial data.

The presence of infectivity in peripheral tissues that enter the food chain clearly indicates that the risk of dietary exposure to Atypical/Nor98 scrapie cannot be disregarded. However, according to our observations, in comparison to the brain, the infectious titres in the peripheral tissues were five log10 lower in Atypical/Nor98 scrapie than in classical scrapie. Therefore, the reduction of the relative exposure risk following SRM removal (CNS, head, spleen and ileum) is probably significantly higher in Atypical/Nor98 scrapie cases than in classical scrapie cases. However, considering the currently estimated prevalence of Atypical/Nor98 scrapie in healthy slaughtered EU population [10], it is probable that atypical scrapie infectivity enters in the food chain despite the prevention measures in force.

Finally, the capacity of Atypical/Nor98 scrapie agent (and more generally of small ruminants TSE agents) to cross species barrier that naturally limits the transmission risk is insufficiently documented. Recently, the transmission of an Atypical/Nor98 scrapie isolate was reported into transgenic mice over-expressing the porcine PrP [47]. Such results cannot directly be extrapolated to natural exposure conditions and natural hosts. However, they underline the urgent need for further investigations on the potential capacity of Atypical/Nor98 scrapie to propagate in other species than small ruminants.


Porcine prion protein amyloid and Nor-98 atypical Scrapie

Porcine prion protein amyloid 

Per Hammarström & Sofie Nyström Pages 266-277 | Received 01 Jun 2015, Accepted 17 Jun 2015, Accepted author version posted online: 28 Jul 2015, Published online: 28 Jul 2015

snip...

On the other hand, Nor98 scrapie (Atypical scrapie) as well as BSE from both cattle and BoTg mouse model resulted in clinical disease in the PoTg001 mice. However, in the first generation, disease progression was FIGURE 3. Schematic model of prion strain adaptation. (Model adapted from Collinge and Clarke 2007 and Sandberg et al 2011, 2013.31,49,50) The red horizontal line indicates the tolerance threshold for prion toxicity for the respective model, the green vertical line indicates normal lifespan/experimental termination for the mice. The black curves indicate increase in prion titer over time upon prion inoculation. (a) BSE and classical scrapie in wild type mice according to Bruce et al.23 (b) BSE, classical scrapie and Nor98 scarpie in PoTg001 mice according to Espinosa, Torres et al. (2009, 2014).25,26 270 Hammarstrom and Nystr € om€ slow. Incubation time until death was as long as 600 d and the hit rate was low. This indicates that disease has barely developed by the time the mice reach their natural life span limit which in this study was set to 650 d Already in the second passage the hit rate was 100 % and the incubation time was cut in half (Fig. 3b). No further shortening of incubation time was observed upon third passage. This shows that PoPrP is capable of forming infectious and neurotoxic prions in vivo if triggered by a compatible prion strain and if given enough time to develop. Both BSE and Nor98 rapidly adapts to the PoPrP host sequence, resulting in higher penetrance as well as in markedly shorter life span already in the second passage, well within the limits of normal life span for a mouse.

It is known that prion strains need time and serial passages to adapt. Knowing that pigs in modern farming are rarely kept for enough time for clinical signs to emerge in prion infected pigs it is important to be vigilant if there is a sporadic porcine spongiform encephalopathy (PSE) as has been seen in cattle (BASE) and sheep (Nor98). Hypothetically such a sporadic and then infectious event could further adapt and over a few generations have reached the point where clinical PSE is established within the time frame where pigs are being slaughtered for human consumption (Fig. 4). USE OF MATERIALS DERIVED FROM PIG IN VIEW OF PORCINE PrP AMYLOID The pig is the most versatile species used by humans for food and other applications. Over 1,5 billion pigs are slaughtered each year worldwide for human use.32 Besides juicy pork sirloin other parts from pig are used for making remarkably diverse things such as musical instruments, china, leather, explosives, lubricants etc. Pig offal is used for human medicine, e.g., hormone preparations such as insulin and cerebrolysin, in xenographs, sutures, heparin and in gelatin for drug capsules.33,34 



Research Project: TRANSMISSION, DIFFERENTIATION, AND PATHOBIOLOGY OF TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES

Location: Virus and Prion Research

Title: Disease-associated prion protein detected in lymphoid tissues from pigs challenged with the agent of chronic wasting disease

Author item Moore, Sarah item Kunkle, Robert item Kondru, Naveen item Manne, Sireesha item Smith, Jodi item Kanthasamy, Anumantha item West Greenlee, M item Greenlee, Justin

Submitted to: Prion Publication Type: Abstract Only Publication Acceptance Date: 3/15/2017 Publication Date: N/A Citation: N/A Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Aims: Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a naturally-occurring, fatal neurodegenerative disease of cervids. We previously demonstrated that disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc) can be detected in the brain and retina from pigs challenged intracranially or orally with the CWD agent. In that study, neurological signs consistent with prion disease were observed only in one pig: an intracranially challenged pig that was euthanized at 64 months post-challenge. The purpose of this study was to use an antigen-capture immunoassay (EIA) and real-time quaking-induced conversion (QuIC) to determine whether PrPSc is present in lymphoid tissues from pigs challenged with the CWD agent.

Methods: At two months of age, crossbred pigs were challenged by the intracranial route (n=20), oral route (n=19), or were left unchallenged (n=9). At approximately 6 months of age, the time at which commercial pigs reach market weight, half of the pigs in each group were culled (<6 challenge="" groups="" month="" pigs="" remaining="" the="">6 month challenge groups) were allowed to incubate for up to 73 months post challenge (mpc). The retropharyngeal lymph node (RPLN) was screened for the presence of PrPSc by EIA and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The RPLN, palatine tonsil, and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) from 6-7 pigs per challenge group were also tested using EIA and QuIC.

Results: PrPSc was not detected by EIA and IHC in any RPLNs. All tonsils and MLNs were negative by IHC, though the MLN from one pig in the oral <6 5="" 6="" at="" by="" detected="" eia.="" examined="" group="" in="" intracranial="" least="" lymphoid="" month="" months="" of="" one="" pigs="" positive="" prpsc="" quic="" the="" tissues="" was="">6 months group, 5/6 pigs in the oral <6 4="" and="" group="" months="" oral="">6 months group. Overall, the MLN was positive in 14/19 (74%) of samples examined, the RPLN in 8/18 (44%), and the tonsil in 10/25 (40%). Conclusions:

This study demonstrates that PrPSc accumulates in lymphoid tissues from pigs challenged intracranially or orally with the CWD agent, and can be detected as early as 4 months after challenge.

CWD-infected pigs rarely develop clinical disease and if they do, they do so after a long incubation period. This raises the possibility that CWD-infected pigs could shed prions into their environment long before they develop clinical disease.

Furthermore, lymphoid tissues from CWD-infected pigs could present a potential source of CWD infectivity in the animal and human food chains.


CONFIDENTIAL

EXPERIMENTAL PORCINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY

While this clearly is a cause for concern we should not jump to the conclusion that this means that pigs will necessarily be infected by bone and meat meal fed by the oral route as is the case with cattle. ...


we cannot rule out the possibility that unrecognised subclinical spongiform encephalopathy could be present in British pigs though there is no evidence for this: only with parenteral/implantable pharmaceuticals/devices is the theoretical risk to humans of sufficient concern to consider any action.


 Our records show that while some use is made of porcine materials in medicinal products, the only products which would appear to be in a hypothetically ''higher risk'' area are the adrenocorticotrophic hormone for which the source material comes from outside the United Kingdom, namely America China Sweden France and Germany. The products are manufactured by Ferring and Armour. A further product, ''Zenoderm Corium implant'' manufactured by Ethicon, makes use of porcine skin - which is not considered to be a ''high risk'' tissue, but one of its uses is described in the data sheet as ''in dural replacement''. This product is sourced from the United Kingdom.....


 snip...see much more here ;

WEDNESDAY, APRIL 05, 2017

Disease-associated prion protein detected in lymphoid tissues from pigs challenged with the agent of chronic wasting disease


spontaneous atypical BSE or spontaneous atypical Nor98 Scrapie, the spontaneous part, or sporadic, no cause, that dog does not hunt anymore. that old folks and old cow disease is BSe at it's finest, just like sporadic CJD, a spontaneous event from nothing in 85%+ of all humans, that's bull shit as well. 

AS with atypical BSE type h, type L, and look at France, if atypical BSE was spontaneous, why then does France have an overly abundant cases of atypical BSE in both L type and H type?

must be an epidemic of spontaneous BSE in one given area? i don't think so.

Table 10: Number and proportion of BSE cases subject to discriminatory testing, by case type for the period 2003–2015 in the EU and other reporting countries

see chart page 25;


Table 10: Number and proportion of BSE cases subject to discriminato ry testing, by case type for the period2003–2015 in the EU and other repo rting countries

SAME with atypical scrapie, why then does Portugal of the Russian Federation have an outbreak of the highest documented atypical scrapie cases, if then atypical scrapie is a spontaneous event? look at the chart on page 35, see atypical scrapie cases by country, and someone please tell me why a few of these countries have way over what other countries have of the atypical Scrapie. if it was a spontaneous event, you would think these spontaneous events would be uniform, ...unless there were causes, then they would not be so uniform. look at the chart on page 35 

The European Union summary report on data of the surveillance of ruminants for the presence of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in 2015 

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA),Frank Boelaert, Marta Hugas, Angel Ortiz Pelaez, Valentina Rizzi, Pietro Stella andYves Van Der Stede


AND FINALLY, THIS CHART HAS ALL THE PROOF YOU NEED THAT ATYPICAL SCRAPIE IS _NOT_ SPONTANEOUS. IF IT IS, THERE ARE A FEW COUNTRIES WITH AN EPIDEMIC OF ATYPCIAL NOR98 SCRAPIE, THAT OTHER COUNTRIES DON'T HAVE.

Table 14: Annual TSE cases by country, species and case type in 2002–2015 in the EU and other reporting countries

Case type Atypical Classical Year 2002 2003 2004 2005 20062007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Total 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 

Total Sheep

Country

SNIP...SEE FIGURES PAGE 40;


Increased Atypical Scrapie Detections

Press reports indicate that increased surveillance is catching what otherwise would have been unreported findings of atypical scrapie in sheep. In 2009, five new cases have been reported in Quebec, Ontario, Alberta, and Saskatchewan. With the exception of Quebec, all cases have been diagnosed as being the atypical form found in older animals. Canada encourages producers to join its voluntary surveillance program in order to gain scrapie-free status. The World Animal Health will not classify Canada as scrapie-free until no new cases are reported for seven years. The Canadian Sheep Federation is calling on the government to fund a wider surveillance program in order to establish the level of prevalence prior to setting an eradication date. Besides long-term testing, industry is calling for a compensation program for farmers who report unusual deaths in their flocks.


Atypical scrapie in Australia

RW Cook,a* J Bingham,bAS Besier,cCL Bayley,dM Hawes,ePL Shearer,fM Yamada,bJ Bergfeld,bDT Williamsband DJ Middletonb Background Since its initial detection in Norway in 1998, atypical scrapie (‘atypical/Nor98 scrapie’) has been reported in sheep in the majority of European countries (including in regions free of classical scrapie) and in the Falkland Islands, the USA, Canada,New Zealand and Australia.

Case series The diagnosis in Australia of atypical scrapie in four Merino and one Merino-cross sheep showing clinical signs of neurological disease was based on the detection of grey matter neuropil vacuolation (spongiform change) in the brain (particularly inthe molecular layer of the cerebellar cortex) and associated abnormal prion protein (PrPSc) deposition in both grey and white matter. Changes were minimal in the caudal brainstem, the predilection site for lesions of classical scrapie.Conclusion The distinctive lesion profile of atypical scrapie in these five sheep highlights the diagnostic importance of routine histological evaluation of the cerebellum for evidence of neuropil vacuolation and associated PrPSc deposition in adult sheep with suspected neurological disease.

Keywords atypical scrapie; prion disease; sheep; transmissible spongiform encephalopathy 

Abbreviations ANZSDP, Australian and New Zealand StandardDiagnostic Procedure; CNS, central nervous system; DMNV, dorsalmotor nucleus of the vagus nerve; H&E, haematoxylin and eosin;IHC, immunohistochemistry; NTSESP, National TSE SurveillanceProgram; PrPSc, abnormal prion protein isomer; TSE, transmissiblespongiform encephalopathy. Aust Vet J 2016;94:452–455 doi: 10.1111/avj.12529


Friday, February 11, 2011

Atypical/Nor98 Scrapie Infectivity in Sheep Peripheral Tissues

snip...

The presence of infectivity in peripheral tissues that enter the food chain clearly indicates that the risk of dietary exposure to Atypical/Nor98 scrapie cannot be disregarded. However, according to our observations, in comparison to the brain, the infectious titres in the peripheral tissues were five log10 lower in Atypical/Nor98 scrapie than in classical scrapie. Therefore, the reduction of the relative exposure risk following SRM removal (CNS, head, spleen and ileum) is probably significantly higher in Atypical/Nor98 scrapie cases than in classical scrapie cases. However, considering the currently estimated prevalence of Atypical/Nor98 scrapie in healthy slaughtered EU population [10], it is probable that atypical scrapie infectivity enters in the food chain despite the prevention measures in force.

Finally, the capacity of Atypical/Nor98 scrapie agent (and more generally of small ruminants TSE agents) to cross species barrier that naturally limits the transmission risk is insufficiently documented. Recently, the transmission of an Atypical/Nor98 scrapie isolate was reported into transgenic mice over-expressing the porcine PrP [47]. Such results cannot directly be extrapolated to natural exposure conditions and natural hosts. However, they underline the urgent need for further investigations on the potential capacity of Atypical/Nor98 scrapie to propagate in other species than small ruminants.

snip...please see full text thanks to the Authors and plospathogens.org/


Saturday, February 27, 2010

FINAL REPORT OF THE TESTING OF THE BELGIAN (VERMONT) SHEEP February 27, 2010


From: Terry S. Singeltary Sr. 

Sent: Thursday, February 19, 2015 10:04 PM 

To: Terry S. Singeltary Sr. 

Subject: mad sheep mad river valley...NOT...never was

Veterinary Laboratories Agency – Weybridge

New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB United Kingdom

Telephone +44 (0)1932 341111 Facsimile +44 (0)1932 347046 '


Veterinary Laboratories Agency

Your ref: MPL-6197-7-37

Our ref: FT1294

This is the FINAL report for contract MPL-6197-7-37 The testing of the Belgian (Vermont) sheep.

Background

Brain homogenate (10% in normal saline) from each case was inoculated intracerebralty into panels of 20 Rlll and 20 Tg338 mice.

FT1294/0001 (Sample 4677) was inoculated into mice on the 14/12/06

FT1294/0011 (Sample 4703) was inoculated into mice on the 20/12/06

Method

The brain from each mouse was examined histologically for any evidence of TSE-related vacuolation, and immunolabelled using anti-PrP antibody Rb486 as described elsewhere1, All slide interpretation was undertaken blind with regard to the clinical status of the mouse, or the source of the inoculum.

Final bioassay results

FT1294/0001 (Sample 4677)

Tg338 mice - All 20 mice are negative by histopathology, and immunohistochemistry

Rlll mice - All 20 mice are negative negative by histopathology, and immunohistochemistry

FT1294/0011 (Sample 4703)

Tg338 mice - All 20 mice are negative by histopathology, and immunohistochemistry

Rlll mice - All 20 mice are negative by histopathology, and immunohrstochernistry

The survival times for these mice can be seen in the figures below. Additional data sets from positive and negative inocula (J Spiropoulos, pers. comm.) have been included for comparison._

1 Beck KE, Chaplin M, Stack M: Sallis RE, Simonini S, Lockey R, Spiropoulos J. Lesion Profiling at Primary Isolation in Rlll Mice Is Insufficient in Distinguishing BSE from Classical Scrapie. Brain Pathol. 2009 epub ahead of print

FINAL report for contract MPL-6197-7-37

VLA is an Executive Agency of the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra)

snip... (2 pages of charts and graphs of survival and comparison of tg338 data NOT included here...TSS)

CONCLUSION

These mice have survived for long enough to have demonstrated the presence of classical scrapie, atypical scrapie, or ovine BSE if any of these strains was present in the inoculum.

Both samples are negative by bioassay.

Dr. Marion M Simmons

22nd October 2009

February 27, 2010, INVESTIGATION OF MAD SHEEP OF MAD RIVER VALLEY COMPLETE. THEY WERE NOT INFECTED WITH ANY TSE. ...TSS

Greetings again BSE list members,

The investigation of the Mad Sheep of Mad River Valley may be complete now, but, I still have questions.

PLEASE SEE MY FINAL FOIA HERE ;

Monday, September 1, 2008

RE-FOIA OF DECLARATION OF EXTRAORDINARY EMERGENCY BECAUSE OF AN ATYPICAL T.S.E. (PRION DISEASE) OF FOREIGN ORIGIN IN THE UNITED STATES [No. 00-072-1] September 1, 2008

Greetings again BSE-L members,

I had a pleasant surprise this past Saturday. I got an unexpected package from O.I.G. on my old F.O.I.A. request, of the final test results of the infamous mad sheep of mad river valley. IF you all remember, back on Thu, 24 Apr 2008 15:00:20 -0500 I wrote ;

Greetings,

With great disgust, I must report, that after years and years of wrangling over the infamous mad sheep of mad river valley, I have failed in getting an official answer via FOIA on the outcome of the TSE testing of those imported Belgium sheep. The USA Government refuses to tell the public, exactly what the testing outcome was, and in doing so, shows just how corrupt this administration has been. and the excuse given in their answer to my final appeal, which they have now officially denied, was bizarre to say the least ;

"I am denying your FOIA appeal. This is the final agency decision. You may seek judicial review of this decision in the United States district court for the judicial district in which you reside or have your principal place of business or in the District of Columbia, pursuant to 5 U.S.C. & 552(a)(4)(B)."

FOIA OF DECLARATION OF EXTRAORDINARY EMERGENCY BECAUSE OF AN ATYPICAL T.S.E. (PRION DISEASE) OF FOREIGN ORIGIN IN THE UNITED STATES [Docket No. 00-072-1] ...snip...end...TSS

NOW, out of the wild blue, AFTER them telling me they denied my FOIA appeal for the final time, any further action would have to be judicial review in the United States district court, I get 25+ pages, a lot of redacted names, etc, but this is the first time they sent me anything about this in the 6 years of waiting for my FOIA request. IT will take me a long time to get this online due to the fact you cannot hardly read it, very poor quality and eligibility of text. BUT, the just of it is, somebody (REDACTED) screwed those tests up. I will work to get all the data online next week or so, but it is odd how much they were concerned for human and animal health from an atypical scrapie of foreign origin back then, but yet when we document it here in the USA, you don't hear a word about it. it's a completely different story.

IN SHORT ;

August 15, 2000

OIG case # NY-3399-56 REDACTED, VT

''Enclosed is OIG's notification that they have scheduled an investigation of the following individual. REDACTED is alleged to have provided possibly inaccurate test results involving diseased sheep. However, because the results were determined to be inconclusive, no actual violation was actually committed.''

snip...

IN SHORT ;

August 15, 2000

OIG case # NY-3399-56 REDACTED, VT

''Enclosed is OIG's notification that they have scheduled an investigation of the following individual. REDACTED is alleged to have provided possibly inaccurate test results involving diseased sheep. However, because the results were determined to be inconclusive, no actual violation was actually committed.''

snip...

JULY, 28, 2000

Case Opening Memorandum

snip...

An investigation regarding the subject identified below will be conduced and a report submitted at the conclusion of the investigation. If you have or should later receive additional information concerning this matter, please forward it to this office.

If you believe that administrative action should be taken before all criminal and other legal matters are completed, please coordinate that action with this office in order not to jeopardize the ongoing investigation.

The fact that this subject is under investigation should not be discussed with anyone who does not have a need to know and all inquiries on the investigation should be referred to the office of Inspector General.

snip...end

FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY FEBRUARY 7, 2002

SUBJECT OIG CASE NY-3399-56 REDACTED VT HEALTH/SANITATION VIOLATION

TO: William Buisch, Regional Director Eastern Region, VS Raleigh, NC

Enclosed is the official investigation report on REDACTED. If you will recall, REDACTED is alleged to have provided possible inaccurate test results involving diseased sheep.

OIG is closing their file upon issuance of the Report of Investigation (copy enclosed). We are, therefore, also closing our case file.

REDACTED

Resource Management Systems and Evaluation Staff

Enclosure

cc:

REDACTED IES, Riverdale, MD (w/cy of incoming)

APHIS:RMSES: REDACTED 2/7/02 "NY-3399-56-REDACTED Closure''

END...TSS

NOW, the question is, who screwed those test up, and was it done on purpose, just to cover someone's ass for letting those sheep in here in the first place ???

WHICH tests were compromised, one of them, all of them, and, can we trust the outcome of any of these test under the circumstances here ???

i.e.

"It is significant that four of the sheep which first tested positive on REDACTED Western blot tests, thereby providing the type of confirmation the plaintiffs argue is lacking on the current record."

UNDER what circumstances were these test compromised ???

MY basic, simple question, was not answered in layman term, i.e. exactly what strain of TSE did those sheep have ???

IS this the best we can do ???

>>>"REDACTED is alleged to have provided possibly inaccurate test results involving diseased sheep. However, because the results were determined to be inconclusive, no actual violation was actually committed.''<<<

PLEASE SEE FULL TEXT HERE ;


Saturday, February 27, 2010

*** FINAL REPORT OF THE TESTING OF THE BELGIAN (VERMONT) SHEEP February 27, 2010 IN SHORT ; August 15, 2000 OIG case # NY-3399-56 REDACTED, VT ''Enclosed is OIG's notification that they have scheduled an investigation of the following individual. REDACTED is alleged to have provided possibly inaccurate test results involving diseased sheep. However, because the results were determined to be inconclusive, no actual violation was actually committed.''

FINAL REPORT OF THE TESTING OF THE BELGIAN (VERMONT) SHEEP February 27, 2010

(10 YEARS LATER, FOIA, none of the sheep had any TSE at all...tss)


Thursday, April 24, 2008

RE-FOIA OF DECLARATION OF EXTRAORDINARY EMERGENCY BECAUSE OF AN ATYPICAL T.S.E. OF FOREIGN ORIGIN IN THE UNITED STATES [Docket No. 00-072-1]


Monday, September 1, 2008 

RE-FOIA OF DECLARATION OF EXTRAORDINARY EMERGENCY BECAUSE OF AN ATYPICAL T.S.E. (PRION DISEASE) OF FOREIGN ORIGIN IN THE UNITED STATES [No. 00-072-1]


FOIA MAD SHEEP MAD RIVER VALLEY

Tuesday, November 13, 2007

DECLARATION OF EXTRAORDINARY EMERGENCY BECAUSE OF AN ATYPICAL T.S.E. (PRION DISEASE) OF FOREIGN ORIGIN IN THE UNITED STATES [Docket No. 00-072-1]



Re: FOIA APPEAL 07-566 DECLARATION OF EXTRAORDINARY EMERGENCY BECAUSE OF AN ATYPICAL T.S.E. (PRION DISEASE) OF FOREIGN ORIGIN IN THE UNITED STATES [Docket No. 00-072-1]

November 13, 2007

Greetings Garfield O. Daley, Acting FOIA Director, and USDA et al,

SNIP

for those interested, please see full text answer below received from USDA et al below on latest appeal ;



Tuesday, November 13, 2007

DECLARATION OF EXTRAORDINARY EMERGENCY BECAUSE OF AN ATYPICAL T.S.E. (PRION DISEASE) OF FOREIGN ORIGIN IN THE UNITED STATES [Docket No. 00-072-1]



Re: FOIA APPEAL 07-566 DECLARATION OF EXTRAORDINARY EMERGENCY BECAUSE OF AN ATYPICAL T.S.E. (PRION DISEASE) OF FOREIGN ORIGIN IN THE UNITED STATES [Docket No. 00-072-1] 

The Faillace's have a book out about all this...



WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 01, 2017 

Norway detects CWD Skrantesjuke Deer possibly atypical Nor-98-type TSE?

Greetings TSE prion world, 

i am seeing more and more references to the atypical Nor-98-type CWD TSE Prion in Norway as being of the non-infectious or non-infective variant. with science documented to date, i do not believe that any CWD Skrantesjuke TSE Prion typical or atypical in Norway or anywhere else can be classified as ''non-infective variant''. IF, Norway takes the USDA OIE views and makes atypical Nor-98 type CWD in Deer a International trading commodity fueled by junk science, as they did with sheep, i.e. no trade restrictions for Nor-98 in sheep, the world should then weep...terry 

Nor-98 atypical Scrapie Transmission Studies Review

snip...see full text;



P178 Chronic Wasting Disease in European moose is associated with PrPSc features different from North American CWD

Dr Laura Pirisinu1, Dr Linh Tran2, Dr Gordon Mitchell3, Dr Aru Balachandran3, Dr Thierry Baron4, Dr Cristina Casalone5, Dr Michele Di Bari1, Dr Umberto Agrimi1, Dr Romolo Nonno1, Dr Sylvie Benestad2 1Department of Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy, 2Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Oslo, Norway, 3Canadian Food Inspection Agency, National and OIE Reference Laboratory for Scrapie and CWD, Ottawa Laboratory Fallowfield, Ottawa, Canada, 4Neurodegenerative Diseases Unit, ANSES - French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety, Lyon, France, 5Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, Liguria e Valle d'Aosta, Turin, Italy

Aims: In 2016, Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) was detected for the first time in Europe in three wild Norwegian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) and in two moose (Alces alces). The biochemical analysis and the immunohistochemical distribution of PrPSc from Norwegian reindeer revealed a pattern similar to North American (NA) isolates¹. In this study, we studied the biochemical features of PrPSc from the two CWD cases in Norwegian moose.

Methods: Western blot (WB) analysis of PK-treated PrPSc (PrPres) from Norwegian moose and reindeer isolates was performed according to the ISS discriminatory WB protocol (used in BSE and scrapie Italian surveillance). PrPres fragments were determined by epitope mapping (SAF84, L42, 9A2, 12B2 mAbs), before and after deglycosylation. CWD isolates from Canadian cervids (wapiti, moose and white tailed deer) and a panel of small ruminant and bovine prion strains circulating in Europe were also analysed.

Results: WB analysis with different mAbs showed that PrPres from both Norwegian moose samples was different from that usually associated with CWD in cervids. Indeed, their main C-terminal fragment had a MW lower than the other CWD isolates, and could be discriminated by the absence of the 12B2 epitope. Furthermore, while NA CWD PrPSc is composed of a single PrPres fragment, Norwegian moose samples had an additional C-terminal PrPres fragment of ~13 kDa (CTF13). Among ovine TSEs, classical scrapie and Nor98 were discriminated from both Norwegian moose isolates, while CH1641 samples had molecular features partially overlapping with the moose, i.e. a low MW PrPres and the presence of CTF13. In contrast, moose PrPSc did not overlap with any bovine PrPSc. Indeed, the MW of moose PrPres was lower than H-BSE and similar to C-BSE and L-BSE PrPres, but the two bovine prions lacked additional PrPres fragments.

Conclusions: Unexpectedly, PrPSc from Norwegian moose revealed features substantially different from all other CWD isolates. The PrPSc pattern of Norwegian moose was also different from Canadian moose, suggesting that the variant PrPSc type observed does not simply reflect a host factor and could represent a new CWD strain. Furthermore, PrPSc of Norwegian moose can be easily discriminated from all BSE types, classical scrapie and Nor98, while showing significant overlapping only with CH1641.

Bioassay in voles will help to clarify whether the different PrPSc types observed reflect the presence of a new CWD strain in Norwegian moose, and its relationships with known animal TSEs.

References:

¹Benestad et al. Vet Res (2016)47:88

=====PRION2017====


CH1641 atypical scrapie or atypical BSE or both ???

P178 Chronic Wasting Disease in European moose is associated with PrPSc features different from North American CWD

Dr Laura Pirisinu1, Dr Linh Tran2, Dr Gordon Mitchell3, Dr Aru Balachandran3, Dr Thierry Baron4, Dr Cristina Casalone5, Dr Michele Di Bari1, Dr Umberto Agrimi1. Dr Romolo Nonno1, Dr Sylvie Benestad2 

1Department of Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome, Italy, 2Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Oslo, Norway, 3Canadian Food Inspection Agency, National and OlE Reference Laboratory for Scrapie and CWD, Ottawa Laboratory Fallowfield, Ottawa, Canada, 4Neurodeqenerative Diseases Unit, ANSES - French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety, Lyon, France, 5Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Pietnonte, Liguria e Valle d'Aosta, Turin, Italy 

Aims: In 2016, Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) was detected for the first time in Europe in three wild Norwegian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) and in two moose (Alces alces). The biochemical analysis and the immunohistochemical distribution of PrPSc from Norwegian reindeer revealed a pattern similar to North American (NA) isolates1. In this study, we studied the biochemical features of PrPSc from the two CWD cases in Norwegian moose. 

Methods: Western blot (WB) analysis of PK-treated PrPSc (PrPres) from Norwegian moose and reindeer isolates was performed according to the ISS discriminatory WB protocol (used in BSE and scrapie Italian surveillance). PrPres fragments were determined by epitope mapping (SAF84, L42, 9A2, 12B2 mAbs), before and after deglycosylation. CWD isolates from Canadian cervids (wapiti, moose and white tailed deer) and a panel of small ruminant and bovine prion strains circulating in Europe were also analysed. 

Results: WB analysis with different mAbs showed that PrPres from both Norwegian moose samples was different from that usually associated with CWD in cervids. Indeed, their main C-terminal fragment had a MW lower than the other CWD isolates, and could be discriminated by the absence of the 12B2 epitope. Furthermore, while NA CWD PrPSc is composed of a single PrPres fragment, Norwegian moose samples had an additional C-terminal PrPres fragment of ~13 kDa (CTF13). Among ovine TSEs, classical scrapie and Nor98 were discriminated from both Norwegian moose isolates, while CH1641 samples had molecular features partially overlapping with the moose, i.e. a low MW PrPres and the presence of CTF13. In contrast, moose PrPSc did not overlap with any bovine PrPSc. Indeed, the MW of moose PrPres was lower than H-BSE and similar to C-BSE and L-BSE PrPres, but the two bovine prions lacked additional PrPres fragments. 

Conclusions: Unexpectedly, PrPSc from Norwegian moose revealed features substantially different from all other CWD isolates. The PrPSc pattern of Norwegian moose was also different from Canadian moose, suggesting that the variant PrPSc type observed does not simply reflect a host factor and could represent a new CWD strain. Furthermore, PrPSc of Norwegian moose can be easily discriminated from all BSE types, classical scrapie and Nor98, while showing significant overlapping only with CH1641. Bioassay in voles will help to clarify whether the different PrPSc types observed reflect the presence of a new CWD strain in Norwegian moose, and its relationships with known animal TSEs. 

References: 1Benestad et al, Vet Res (2016}47:88 

PRION 2017 DECIPHERING NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS

please see;

***Our transmission study demonstrates that CH 1641-like scrapie is likely to be more virulent than classical scrapie in cattle. 

In the US, scrapie is reported primarily in sheep homozygous for 136A/171Q (AAQQ) and the disease phenotype is similar to that seen with experimental strain CH1641.


***Our transmission study demonstrates that CH 1641-like scrapie is likely to be more virulent than classical scrapie in cattle. 

P-088 Transmission of experimental CH1641-like scrapie to bovine PrP overexpression mice

Kohtaro Miyazawa1, Kentaro Masujin1, Hiroyuki Okada1, Yuichi Matsuura1, Takashi Yokoyama2

1Influenza and Prion Disease Research Center, National Institute of Animal Health, NARO, Japan; 2Department of Planning and General Administration, National Institute of Animal Health, NARO

Introduction: Scrapie is a prion disease in sheep and goats. CH1641-lke scrapie is characterized by a lower molecular mass of the unglycosylated form of abnormal prion protein (PrpSc) compared to that of classical scrapie. It is worthy of attention because of the biochemical similarities of the Prpsc from CH1641-like and BSE affected sheep. We have reported that experimental CH1641-like scrapie is transmissible to bovine PrP overexpression (TgBoPrP) mice (Yokoyama et al. 2010). We report here the further details of this transmission study and compare the biological and biochemical properties to those of classical scrapie affected TgBoPrP mice.

Methods: The details of sheep brain homogenates used in this study are described in our previous report (Yokoyama et al. 2010). TgBoPrP mice were intracerebrally inoculated with a 10% brain homogenate of each scrapie strain. The brains of mice were subjected to histopathological and biochemical analyses.

Results: Prpsc banding pattern of CH1641-like scrapie affected TgBoPrP mice was similar to that of classical scrapie affected mice. Mean survival period of CH1641-like scrapie affected TgBoPrP mice was 170 days at the 3rd passage and it was significantly shorter than that of classical scrapie affected mice (439 days). Lesion profiles and Prpsc distributions in the brains also differed between CH1641-like and classical scrapie affected mice.

Conclusion: We succeeded in stable transmission of CH1641-like scrapie to TgBoPrP mice. Our transmission study demonstrates that CH 1641-like scrapie is likely to be more virulent than classical scrapie in cattle.

WS-02

Scrapie in swine: A diagnostic challenge

Justin J Greenlee1, Robert A Kunkle1, Jodi D Smith1, Heather W. Greenlee2

1National Animal Disease Center, US Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, United States; 2Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine

A naturally occurring prion disease has not been recognized in swine, but the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy does transmit to swine by experimental routes. Swine are thought to have a robust species barrier when exposed to the naturally occurring prion diseases of other species, but the susceptibility of swine to the agent of sheep scrapie has not been thoroughly tested.

Since swine can be fed rations containing ruminant derived components in the United States and many other countries, we conducted this experiment to test the susceptibility of swine to U.S. scrapie isolates by intracranial and oral inoculation. Scrapie inoculum was a pooled 10% (w/v) homogenate derived from the brains of clinically ill sheep from the 4th passage of a serial passage study of the U.S scrapie agent (No. 13-7) through susceptible sheep that were homozygous ARQ at prion protein residues 136, 154, and 171, respectively. Pigs were inoculated intracranially (n=19) with a single 0.75 ml dose or orally (n=24) with 15 ml repeated on 4 consecutive days. Necropsies were done on a subset of animals at approximately six months post inoculation (PI), at the time the pigs were expected to reach market weight. Remaining pigs were maintained and monitored for clinical signs of TSE until study termination at 80 months PI or when removed due to intercurrent disease (primarily lameness). Brain samples were examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC), western blot (WB), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Brain tissue from a subset of pigs in each inoculation group was used for bioassay in mice expressing porcine PRNP.

At six-months PI, no evidence of scrapie infection was noted by any diagnostic method. However, at 51 months of incubation or greater, 5 animals were positive by one or more methods: IHC (n=4), WB (n=3), or ELISA (n=5). Interestingly, positive bioassay results were obtained from all inoculated groups (oral and intracranial; market weight and end of study).

Swine inoculated with the agent of scrapie by the intracranial and oral routes do not accumulate abnormal prion protein (PrPSc) to a level detectable by IHC or WB by the time they reach typical market age and weight. However, strong support for the fact that swine are potential hosts for the agent of scrapie comes from positive bioassay from both intracranially and orally inoculated pigs and multiple diagnostic methods demonstrating abnormal prion protein in intracranially inoculated pigs with long incubation times.

Curriculum Vitae

Dr. Greenlee is Research Veterinary Medical Officer in the Virus and Prion Research Unit at the National Animal Disease Center, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. He applies his specialty in veterinary anatomic pathology to focused research on the intra- and interspecies transmission of prion diseases in livestock and the development of antemortem diagnostic assays for prion diseases. In addition, knockout and transgenic mouse models are used to complement ongoing experiments in livestock species. Dr. Greenlee has publications in a number of topic areas including prion agent decontamination, effects of PRNP genotype on susceptibility to the agent of sheep scrapie, characterization of US scrapie strains, transmission of chronic wasting disease to cervids and cattle, features of H-BSE associated with the E211 K polymorphism, and the development of retinal assessment for antemortem screening for prion diseases in sheep and cattle. Dr. Greenlee obtained his DVM degree and completed the PhD/residency program in Veterinary Pathology at Iowa State University. He is a Diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists.


RESEARCH ARTICLE

Phenotype Shift from Atypical Scrapie to CH1641 following Experimental Transmission in Sheep

Marion M. Simmons*, S. Jo Moore¤a , Richard Lockey¤b , Melanie J. Chaplin, Timm Konold, Christopher Vickery, John Spiropoulos Animal and Plant Health Agency—Weybridge, Woodham Lane, Addlestone, Surrey, KT15 3NB, United Kingdom ¤a Current address: School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Murdoch University, South Street, Murdoch, Western Australia, 6150, Australia ¤b Current address: University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ, United Kingdom * marion.simmons@apha.gsi.gov.uk

Abstract

The interactions of host and infecting strain in ovine transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are known to be complex, and have a profound effect on the resulting phenotype of disease. In contrast to classical scrapie, the pathology in naturally-occurring cases of atypical scrapie appears more consistent, regardless of genotype, and is preserved on transmission within sheep homologous for the prion protein (PRNP) gene. However, the stability of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy phenotypes on passage across and within species is not absolute, and there are reports in the literature where experimental transmissions of particular isolates have resulted in a phenotype consistent with a different strain. In this study, intracerebral inoculation of atypical scrapie between two genotypes both associated with susceptibility to atypical forms of disease resulted in one sheep displaying an altered phenotype with clinical, pathological, biochemical and murine bioassay characteristics all consistent with the classical scrapie strain CH1641, and distinct from the atypical scrapie donor, while the second sheep did not succumb to challenge. One of two sheep orally challenged with the same inoculum developed atypical scrapie indistinguishable from the donor. This study adds to the range of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy phenotype changes that have been reported following various different experimental donor-recipient combinations. While these circumstances may not arise through natural exposure to disease in the field, there is the potential for iatrogenic exposure should current disease surveillance and feed controls be relaxed. Future sheep to sheep transmission of atypical scrapie might lead to instances of disease with an alternative phenotype and onward transmission potential which may have adverse implications for both public health and animal disease control policies.

snip...

Discussion

It is clear from all the different aspects of phenotype investigated in this study that one recipient sheep in this experimental transmission expressed a phenotype that was CH1641-like, and different from that of the donor which was diagnosed with atypical scrapie. At present this is a single event, and no conclusion can be drawn about the frequency with which this might happen either experimentally or in the field. With only two animals challenged intracerebrally, and the other recipient remaining negative, it will be impossible to extrapolate whether our finding is truly a stochastic single event, or whether a larger group size would have revealed a trend. The very small group size was an inevitable consequence of the practical limitations of this study given the decision to use only naturally-occurring field case donors, for which material is often sparse and frequently of very poor quality. However, this study provides evidence for the view that conversion/mutation of TSE strains is possible and, irrespective of whether or not such events are stochastic, they can lead to the emergence of potentially zoonotic strains.

There are a number of hypothetical explanations for this unexpected result. The first possibility that had to be excluded was that cross contamination with a CH1641 isolate might have occurred at some point in the experimental procedure. The inoculum was prepared and divided into aliquots on the day of preparation; sheep and mice were challenged using different aliquots of the same homogenate. The only strain identified in mice was atypical scrapie, which was compatible with the diagnosis in the original donor. In addition CH1641 had only been handled by the inoculum preparation team once, two years prior to the inocula for this experiment being prepared, arguing against cross contamination during the preparation of the inoculum. Therefore any possible cross contamination would have had to occur during the inoculation procedure. However, on the inoculation day no CH1641 was handled in the operating theatre—only atypical scrapie, and sterile disposable surgical equipment was used wherever possible and reusable equipment was decontaminated according to strict criteria (one hour immersion in 2M NaOH, followed by autoclaving for 18 mins at 136°C). Additionally, an audit of all prepared CH1641 samples indicated that all the anticipated samples remain in our archive and could not, therefore, have been used in error.

Another possible hypothesis is that the donor sheep might have been co-infected sub-clinically with a CH1641-like classical scrapie strain in addition to atypical scrapie. Such co-infection of different scrapie strains, while observed very rarely, has already been described in field situations [23,37], and in the laboratory context, there is supporting evidence for some heterogeneity of strain populations [38] which may then propagate differently in different hosts.

Since the donor animal was an ARR/ARR genotype, this would further reduce the likelihood of a classical scrapie strain co-existing in this sheep, since there are only two confirmed cases of classical scrapie occurring naturally in this genotype [39]. Alternatively, it could be argued that a resistant sheep could potentially be more likely to harbour low levels of a classical scrapie strain which could remain below detection levels of the currently available laboratory tests, given that little is understood about the fundamental basis for genetic resistance. However, surveillance records were reviewed for details relating to the source flock, and there has been no recorded occurrence of classical scrapie in any genotype of animal from this flock, at any time.

The third, and arguably the most plausible, explanation is that the original atypical isolate has ‘converted/mutated’ into CH1641 as a result of the experimental conditions. Again there is some precedent for this occurrence, with previous experimental observations in porcine transgenic mice, where an atypical scrapie isolate acquired a typical 3-band blot pattern with characteristics similar to sub-passaged ovine BSE [40]. This example relates to a cross-species transmission, but evidence also exists of a bovine isolate ‘converting’ or splitting in PRNP congenic TgBov mice [26]. If this was to occur in the field it could be speculated that a country such as Portugal, in which, for several years, atypical scrapie was reported in the absence of any classical scrapie, would be a good place to look for evidence of this kind of strain conversion. However, none of the few recently reported classical scrapie cases in Portugal were CH1641- like [41]. Under natural conditions, and assuming that the atypical scrapie agent is shed into the environment at all, animals are most likely exposed to only very small quantities of the agent, over a prolonged period of time, and probably by the oral route. In contrast, in the current study, a significant amount of the agent was inoculated directly to the brain thereby bypassing all potential natural physiological barriers to the disease. This may have put a greater pressure on the agent to propagate and evolve leading to the observed strain conversion. The difference of genotype between donor and recipient sheep may also have contributed to this, although this did not affect the retention of the atypical phenotype in the animal which succumbed to the oral challenge.

It is likely that it will never be possible to determine conclusively what gave rise to this change in phenotype. However, this study adds to the growing body of data which highlights a fundamental problem with prion diseases; in the absence of an agent that is structurally independent form the host genome and which can be isolated and typed, classification of natural disease relies on the phenotypic characteristics of the host. Given that some isolates appear to be unstable under certain circumstances, there is a danger in making assumptions about the disease situation in the field, and the associated public and animal health risks based on observed phenotype alone.

Supporting Information S1 File. Clinical signs of recipient animal with CH1641 scrapie. A clinical examination carried out at 514 days post inoculation reveals a bilaterally absent menace response: the sheep does not blink in response to movement of a hand/finger towards the eye but blinks when the skin surrounding the eye is touched with artery forceps. Hind limb ataxia is present (excessive swaying of the hind limbs and awkward placement of the limbs when it moves in the corner of the corridor). It bumps its head against the corner of one of the food troughs protruding into the corridor when it turns and also moves once with its head very close to the food trough after it walks from the corner towards the camera, which suggests some visual impairment. It is however able to negotiate obstacles placed on the floor of the corridor without difficulty. Camera surveillance of the pen showed abnormal lying down and rising behaviour of this sheep (identifiable by the orange arrow) compared to its pen mates (identifiable by the white circle). (MOV) 


Title: Strain typing of U.S. scrapie strains using a panel of inbred mice 

Author item Greenlee, Justin item Kunkle, Robert item Nicholson, Eric item Hamir, Amirali item Bulgin, Marie item Richt, Juergen Submitted to: American College of Veterinary Pathologists Meeting Publication Type: Abstract Only Publication Acceptance Date: 7/15/2008 Publication Date: 11/15/2009 Citation: Greenlee, J.J., Kunkle, R.A., Nicholson, E.M., Hamir, A.N., Bulgin, M.S., Richt, J. 2009. 

Strain Typing of U.S. Scrapie Strains Using a Panel of Inbred Mice [abstract]. 

American College of Veterinary Pathologists. Paper No. 121. p. 762. 

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract:

Prion strains may vary in their ability to transmit to humans and animals. Few experimental studies have been done to provide evidence of differences between U.S. strains of scrapie, which can be distinguished by incubation times in inbred mice, microscopic lesions, immunoreactivity to various antibodies, or molecular profile (electrophoretic mobility and glycoform ratio). Recent work on two U.S. isolates of sheep scrapie supports that at least two distinct strains exist based on differences in incubation time and genotype of sheep affected. One isolate (No. 13-7) inoculated intracerebrally caused scrapie in sheep AA at codon 136 (AA136) and QQ at codon 171 (QQ171) of the prion protein in an average of 19 months post-inoculation (PI) whereas a second isolate (No. x124) caused disease in less than 12 months after oral inoculation in AV136/QQ171 sheep. Striking differences were evident when further strain analysis was done in R111, VM, C57Bl6, and C57Bl6xVM (F1) mice. No. 13-7 did not induce disease in any mouse strain at any time post-inoculation (PI) nor were brain tissues positive by western blot (WB). Positive WB results were obtained from mice inoculated with isolate No. x124 starting at day 380 PI. Incubation times averaged 508, 559, 601, and 633 days PI for RIII, C57Bl6, VM, and F1 mice, respectively. Further passage will be required to characterize these scrapie strains in mice. This work provides evidence that multiple scrapie strains exist in U.S. sheep.


Molecular Behaviors of “CH1641-Like” Sheep Scrapie Isolates in Ovine Transgenic Mice (TgOvPrP4)▿

 One of these isolates (TR316211) behaved like the CH1641 isolate, with PrPres features in mice similar to those in the sheep brain. From two other isolates (O100 and O104), two distinct PrPres phenotypes were identified in mouse brains, with either high (h-type) or low (l-type) apparent molecular masses of unglycosylated PrPres, the latter being similar to that observed with CH1641, TR316211, or BSE. Both phenotypes could be found in variable proportions in the brains of the individual mice. In contrast with BSE, l-type PrPres from "CH1641-like" isolates showed lower levels of diglycosylated PrPres. From one of these cases (O104), a second passage in mice was performed for two mice with distinct PrPres profiles. This showed a partial selection of the l-type phenotype in mice infected with a mouse brain with predominant l-type PrPres, and it was accompanied by a significant increase in the proportions of the diglycosylated band. These results are discussed in relation to the diversity of scrapie and BSE strains.


In the US, scrapie is reported primarily in sheep homozygous for 136A/171Q (AAQQ) and the disease phenotype is similar to that seen with experimental strain CH1641.


snip...see ;


 Thursday, July 14, 2011

Histopathological Studies of "CH1641-Like" Scrapie Sources Versus Classical Scrapie and BSE Transmitted to Ovine Transgenic Mice (TgOvPrP4)

 
SHEEP AND BSE

PERSONAL AND CONFIDENTIAL

SHEEP AND BSE

A. The experimental transmission of BSE to sheep.

Studies have shown that the ''negative'' line NPU flock of Cheviots can be experimentally infected with BSE by intracerebral (ic) or oral challenge (the latter being equivalent to 0.5 gram of a pool of four cow brains from animals confirmed to have BSE).


RB264

BSE - TRANSMISSION STUDIES


Wednesday, January 18, 2012

Selection of Distinct Strain Phenotypes in Mice Infected by Ovine Natural Scrapie Isolates Similar to CH1641 Experimental Scrapie

Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology:

February 2012 - Volume 71 - Issue 2 - p 140–147


MONDAY, MARCH 21, 2011 

Sheep and Goat BSE Propagate More Efficiently than Cattle BSE in Human PrP Transgenic Mice


MONDAY, JULY 17, 2017 

National Scrapie Eradication Program May 2017 Monthly Report Fiscal Year 2017



Thursday, December 08, 2016 

USDA APHIS National Scrapie Eradication Program October 2016 Monthly Report Fiscal Year 2017 atypical NOR-98 Scrapie 


MONDAY, NOVEMBER 16, 2015 

Docket No. APHIS-2007-0127 Scrapie in Sheep and Goats Terry Singeltary Sr. Submission



TUESDAY, DECEMBER 12, 2017 

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy BSE TSE Prion (aka mad cow disease) Report December 14, 2017 2017


TUESDAY, DECEMBER 12, 2017 

Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease CJD National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center Cases Examined to December 14, 2017



DECEMBER 14, 2017, 20 YEARS POST DOD MOM HEIDENHAIN VARIANT CREUTZFELDT JAKOB DISEASE HVCJD DECEMBER 14, 1997, JUST MADE A PROMISE TO MOM, AND YOU DON'T BREAK PROMISES WITH YOUR MOM, NEVER FORGET, AND NEVER LET THEM FORGET...TERRY S. SINGELTARY SR.


TUESDAY, DECEMBER 12, 2017 

SCRAPIE TSE PRION UPDATE USA DECEMBER 14, 2017



*** Subject: USA CJD, BSE, SCRAPIE, CWD, TSE PRION END OF YEAR REPORTS 2017

THURSDAY, DECEMBER 14, 2017 

Governor Scott Walkers Apathy Condemns Wisconsin to a lifetime of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE Prion aka Mad Deer Disease


FRIDAY, DECEMBER 15, 2017 

Pennsylvania Four Deer Test Positive for Chronic Wasting Disease on Franklin, Fulton County Quarantined Hunting Preserves

 
TUESDAY, DECEMBER 12, 2017 

Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE Prion (aka mad deer disease) Update USA December 14, 2017

(zoonosis and environmental risk factors towards the bottom, after state by state reports)


FRIDAY, DECEMBER 15, 2017

Canada CFIA updating its national CWD TSE PRION efforts to eradicate disease farmed cervid NOT successful December 14, 2017


CDC STRONGLY SUGGEST IN 2017;

Do not shoot, handle or eat meat from deer and elk that look sick or are acting strangely or are found dead (road-kill). When field-dressing a deer: Wear latex or rubber gloves when dressing the animal or handling the meat. Minimize how much you handle the organs of the animal, particularly the brain or spinal cord tissues. Do not use household knives or other kitchen utensils for field dressing. Check state wildlife and public health guidance to see whether testing of animals is recommended or required. Recommendations vary by state, but information about testing is available from many state wildlife agencies. Strongly consider having the deer or elk tested for CWD before you eat the meat. If you have your deer or elk commercially processed, consider asking that your animal be processed individually to avoid mixing meat from multiple animals. If your animal tests positive for CWD, do not eat meat from that animal. 

SEE FULL REPORT BELOW!

SUNDAY, DECEMBER 10, 2017 

Detection of Prions in Blood of Cervids at the Asymptomatic Stage of Chronic Wasting Disease

The results showed a sensitivity of 100% in animals with very poor body condition that were IHC-positive in both brain and lymph nodes, 96% in asymptomatic deer IHC-positive in brain and lymph nodes and 53% in animals at early stages of infection that were IHC-positive only in lymph nodes. The overall mean diagnostic sensitivity was 79.3% with 100% specificity. These findings show that PMCA might be useful as a blood test for routine, live animal diagnosis of CWD.



CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TSE PRION ZOONOTIC ZOONOSIS

PRICE OF TSE PRION POKER GOES UP!

2017

Subject: ***CDC Now Recommends Strongly consider having the deer or elk tested for CWD before you eat the meat

CDC Now Recommends Strongly consider having the deer or elk tested for CWD before you eat the meat 

Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) 

Prevention 

If CWD could spread to people, it would most likely be through eating of infected deer and elk. In a 2006-2007 CDC survey of U.S. residents, nearly 20 percent of those surveyed said they had hunted deer or elk and more than two-thirds said they had eaten venison or elk meat. However, to date, no CWD infections have been reported in people. 

Hunters must consider many factors when determining whether to eat meat from deer and elk harvested from areas with CWD, including the level of risk they are willing to accept. Hunters harvesting wild deer and elk from areas with reported CWD should check state wildlife and public health guidance to see whether testing of animals is recommended or required in a given state or region. In areas where CWD is known to be present, CDC recommends that hunters strongly consider having those animals tested before eating the meat. 

Tests for CWD are monitoring tools that some state wildlife officials use to look at the rates of CWD in certain animal populations. Testing may not be available in every state, and states may use these tests in different ways. A negative test result does not guarantee that an individual animal is not infected with CWD, but it does make it considerably less likely and may reduce your risk of exposure to CWD. 

To be as safe as possible and decrease their potential risk of exposure to CWD, hunters should take the following steps when hunting in areas with CWD: 

Do not shoot, handle or eat meat from deer and elk that look sick or are acting strangely or are found dead (road-kill). When field-dressing a deer: Wear latex or rubber gloves when dressing the animal or handling the meat. Minimize how much you handle the organs of the animal, particularly the brain or spinal cord tissues. Do not use household knives or other kitchen utensils for field dressing. Check state wildlife and public health guidance to see whether testing of animals is recommended or required. Recommendations vary by state, but information about testing is available from many state wildlife agencies. Strongly consider having the deer or elk tested for CWD before you eat the meat. If you have your deer or elk commercially processed, consider asking that your animal be processed individually to avoid mixing meat from multiple animals. If your animal tests positive for CWD, do not eat meat from that animal. The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service regulates commercially farmed deer and elk. The agency operates a national CWD herd certification program. As part of the voluntary program, states and individual herd owners agree to meet requirements meant to decrease the risk of CWD in their herds. Privately owned herds that do not participate in the herd certification program may be at increased risk for CWD. 

Page last reviewed: August 17, 2017 Page last updated: August 17, 2017 Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology (DHCPP) 


 > However, to date, no CWD infections have been reported in people. 

key word here is 'reported'. science has shown that CWD in humans will look like sporadic CJD. SO, how can one assume that CWD has not already transmitted to humans? they can't, and it's as simple as that. from all recorded science to date, CWD has already transmitted to humans, and it's being misdiagnosed as sporadic CJD. ...terry 

LOOKING FOR CWD IN HUMANS AS nvCJD or as an ATYPICAL CJD, LOOKING IN ALL THE WRONG PLACES $$$ 

*** These results would seem to suggest that CWD does indeed have zoonotic potential, at least as judged by the compatibility of CWD prions and their human PrPC target. Furthermore, extrapolation from this simple in vitro assay suggests that if zoonotic CWD occurred, it would most likely effect those of the PRNP codon 129-MM genotype and that the PrPres type would be similar to that found in the most common subtype of sCJD (MM1).*** 




TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 12, 2017 

CDC Now Recommends Strongly consider having the deer or elk tested for CWD before you eat the meat 


Prion 2017 Conference Abstracts CWD

 2017 PRION CONFERENCE 

First evidence of intracranial and peroral transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) into Cynomolgus macaques: a work in progress 

Stefanie Czub1, Walter Schulz-Schaeffer2, Christiane Stahl-Hennig3, Michael Beekes4, Hermann Schaetzl5 and Dirk Motzkus6 1 

University of Calgary Faculty of Veterinary Medicine/Canadian Food Inspection Agency; 2Universitatsklinikum des Saarlandes und Medizinische Fakultat der Universitat des Saarlandes; 3 Deutsches Primaten Zentrum/Goettingen; 4 Robert-Koch-Institut Berlin; 5 University of Calgary Faculty of Veterinary Medicine; 6 presently: Boehringer Ingelheim Veterinary Research Center; previously: Deutsches Primaten Zentrum/Goettingen 

This is a progress report of a project which started in 2009. 21 cynomolgus macaques were challenged with characterized CWD material from white-tailed deer (WTD) or elk by intracerebral (ic), oral, and skin exposure routes. Additional blood transfusion experiments are supposed to assess the CWD contamination risk of human blood product. Challenge materials originated from symptomatic cervids for ic, skin scarification and partially per oral routes (WTD brain). Challenge material for feeding of muscle derived from preclinical WTD and from preclinical macaques for blood transfusion experiments. We have confirmed that the CWD challenge material contained at least two different CWD agents (brain material) as well as CWD prions in muscle-associated nerves. 

Here we present first data on a group of animals either challenged ic with steel wires or per orally and sacrificed with incubation times ranging from 4.5 to 6.9 years at postmortem. Three animals displayed signs of mild clinical disease, including anxiety, apathy, ataxia and/or tremor. In four animals wasting was observed, two of those had confirmed diabetes. All animals have variable signs of prion neuropathology in spinal cords and brains and by supersensitive IHC, reaction was detected in spinal cord segments of all animals. Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA), real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuiC) and PET-blot assays to further substantiate these findings are on the way, as well as bioassays in bank voles and transgenic mice. 

At present, a total of 10 animals are sacrificed and read-outs are ongoing. Preclinical incubation of the remaining macaques covers a range from 6.4 to 7.10 years. Based on the species barrier and an incubation time of > 5 years for BSE in macaques and about 10 years for scrapie in macaques, we expected an onset of clinical disease beyond 6 years post inoculation. 

PRION 2017 DECIPHERING NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS 

Subject: PRION 2017 CONFERENCE DECIPHERING NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS VIDEO 

PRION 2017 CONFERENCE DECIPHERING NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS 

*** PRION 2017 CONFERENCE VIDEO 



TUESDAY, JULY 04, 2017

*** PRION 2017 CONFERENCE ABSTRACTS ON CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TSE PRION ***


TUESDAY, DECEMBER 12, 2017 

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy BSE TSE Prion (aka mad cow disease) Report December 14, 2017 2017


TUESDAY, DECEMBER 12, 2017 

SCRAPIE TSE PRION UPDATE USA DECEMBER 14, 2017


TUESDAY, DECEMBER 12, 2017 

Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease CJD National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center Cases Examined to December 14, 2017


Tuesday, December 12, 2017 

Neuropathology of iatrogenic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease and immunoassay of French cadaver-sourced growth hormone batches suggest possible transmission of tauopathy and long incubation periods for the transmission of Abeta pathology



Terry S. Singeltary Sr.