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Location: BACLIFF, Texas, United States

My mother was murdered by what I call corporate and political homicide i.e. FOR PROFIT! she died from a rare phenotype of CJD i.e. the Heidenhain Variant of Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease i.e. sporadic, simply meaning from unknown route and source. I have simply been trying to validate her death DOD 12/14/97 with the truth. There is a route, and there is a source. There are many here in the USA. WE must make CJD and all human TSE, of all age groups 'reportable' Nationally and Internationally, with a written CJD questionnaire asking real questions pertaining to route and source of this agent. Friendly fire has the potential to play a huge role in the continued transmission of this agent via the medical, dental, and surgical arena. We must not flounder any longer. ...TSS

Tuesday, September 27, 2016

Classical Scrapie Diagnosis in ARR/ARR Sheep in Brazil

Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 2015. 43(Suppl 1): 69.

 

CASE REPORT Pub. 69

 

ISSN 1679-9216

 

1

 

Received: 4 August 2014 Accepted: 19 December 2014 Published: 6 February 2015

 

1Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Veterinárias (PPGCV), Faculdade de Veterinária (FaVet), Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. 2Setor de Patologia Veterinária (SPV), Departamento de Patologia Clínica Veterinária (DPCV), FAVET, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. 3Departamento de Ciências Morfológicas, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde (ICBS), UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS. CORRESPONDENCE: J.S. Leal [julianoob@gmail.com - Tel.: +55 (51) 3308 3631]. Setor de Patologia Veterinária, FAVET, UFRGS. Av. Bento Gonçalves n. 9090, Bairro Agronomia. CEP 91540-000 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

 

Classical Scrapie Diagnosis in ARR/ARR Sheep in Brazil

 

Juliano Souza Leal1,2, Caroline Pinto de Andrade2, Gabriel Laizola Frainer Correa2, Gisele Silva Boos2, Matheus Viezzer Bianchi2, Sergio Ceroni da Silva2, Rui Fernando Felix Lopes3 & David Driemeier2

 

ABSTRACT

 

Background: Scrapie is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) that affects sheep flocks and goat herds. The transfer of animals or groups of these between sheep farms is associated with increased numbers of infected animals and with the susceptibility or the resistance to natural or classical scrapie form. Although several aspects linked to the etiology of the natural form of this infection remain unclarified, the role of an important genetic control in scrapie incidence has been proposed. Polymorphisms of the PrP gene (prion protein, or simply prion), mainly in codons 136, 154, and 171, have been associated with the risk of scrapie. Case: One animal from a group of 292 sheep was diagnosed positive for scrapie in the municipality of Valparaíso, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The group was part of a flock of 811 free-range, mixed-breed Suffolk sheep of the two genders and ages between 2 and 7 years from different Brazilian regions. Blood was collected for genotyping (for codons 136, 141, 154 and 171), and the third lid and rectal mucosa were sampled for immunohistochemistry (IHC) for scrapie, from all 292 animals of the group. IHC revealed that seven (2.4%) animals were positive for the disease. Collection of samples was repeated for 90 animals, among which the seven individuals diagnosed positive and 83 other animals that had some degree of kinship with those. These 90 sheep were sacrificed and necropsied, when samples of brain (obex), cerebellum, third eyelid, rectal mucosa, mesenteric lymph node, palatine tonsil, and spleen were collected for IHC. The results of IHC analyses carried out after necropsy of the seven positive animals submitted to the second collection of lymphoreticular tissue and of the 83 animals with some degree of kinship with them confirmed the positive diagnosis obtained in the first analysis, and revealed that three other sheep were also positive for scrapie. Samples of 80 animals (89%) were negative for the disease in all organs and tissues analyzed. In turn, 10 sheep (11%) were positive, presenting immunoreactivity in one or more tissues. Genotyping revealed the presence of four of the five alleles of the PrP gene commonly detected in sheep: ARR, ARQ, VRQ and ARH. These allele combinations formed six haplotypes: ARR/ARR, ARR/ARQ, ARH/ARH, ARQ/ARH, ARQ/ARQ and ARQ/VRQ. Animals were classified according to susceptibility to scrapie, when 8.9% of the genotyped sheep were classified into risk group R1 (more resistant, with no restriction to breeding). In turn, 40% of the animals tested ranked in groups R4 and R5 (genetically very susceptible, cannot be used for breeding purposes). Discussion: The susceptibility of sheep flocks depends on the genetic pattern of animals and is determined by the sequence of the gene that codifies protein PrP. Additionally, numerous prion strains are differentiated based on pathological and biochemical characteristics, and may affect animals differently, depending on each individual’s genotype. Most epidemiologic data published to date indicate that animals that carry the ARR/ARR genotype are less susceptible to classical scrapie. However, in the present study, the fact that two scrapie-positive sheep presented the haplotype ARR/ARR indicates that this genotype cannot always be considered an indicator of resistance to the causal agent of the classical manifestation of the disease. The coexistence in the same environment of several crossbred animals from different flocks and farms, which characterizes a new heterogeneous flock, may have promoted a favorable scenario to spread the disease, infecting animals in the most resistant group.

 

Keywords: biopsy, scrapie, TSEs, immunohistochemistry.

 

DISCUSSION

 

The susceptibility of sheep flocks to scrapie depends largely on the genetic pattern of the animal, and is determined mainly by the sequence of the gene that codifies the PrP protein, since there are several polymorphisms that affect the conversion of the cell protein PrPC to its pathological form, PrPSc [8, 9]. Nevertheless, it is not possible to consider the occurrence of only one form of ovine prion, since there are numerous prion strains with different pathological and biochemical characteristics that may affect animals distinctively, depending on their genotypes [1, 30]. In the present study, the frequency of codon VRQ was very low (2.2%), confirming previous findings, which revealed that the alleles ARR and ARQ prevail in Suffolk sheep, and that the allele ARH sometimes is detected [12, 32]. The high sensitivity of homozygous VRQ carriers or of individuals with ARQ haplotypes has also been reported in the literature [24]. This condition raises concerns about susceptibility from the epidemiological perspective, since the allele VRQ, which is rare or absent in breeds like Suffolk, was present in two animals, one of which was positive for scrapie. Most epidemiological and genetic data published indicate that sheep carrying the haplotype ARR/ ARR are less susceptible to classical form, while animals with the haplotype VRQ in homozygosis or with ARQ haplotypes are highly susceptible [24]. This hypothesis is supported by genotyping data for thousands of sheep with the disease around the world. For example, a study carried out in Japan described a classical scrapie case in one ARR/ARR sheep [16]. Sensitivity of ARR/ARR sheep in a scenario of oral exposure to the disease has also been reported [3]. Atypical cases were observed in ARR/ARR animals [11, 42].

 

Polymorphisms at codon positions 136, 154 and 171 are not the only ones associated with resistance or susceptibility to scrapie [33]. An analysis of the variation of codon positions 136 and 171, for instance, showed that each has several adjacent polymorphic sites and may codify up to four amino acids [7, 50]. The atypical scrapie form, characterized by strain Nor98 [6], is more frequently detected in AHQ animals that carry a polymorphism in codon 141, and has not been described in Suffolk sheep in Brazil [2]. This atypical form expresses phenylalanine (F), instead of leucine (L) in the form L141F [6, 37, 46].

 

However, although it is generally acceptable that classical scrapie is an infectious and contagious disease [14], contagion with the atypical form is questionable in light of the fact that the specific marker for the atypical manifestation of the disease is detected outside the central nervous system [5, 20, 29], even in cases experimentally transmitted to transgenic mice [35] and sheep [47]. Several studies have demonstrated that susceptibility to the atypical form is consistently associated with PrP codons 141 (L/F) and 154 (R/H) [6, 42]. In fact, studies have proposed the hypothesis that this form may evolve when the animal is not exposed to the infectious agent [5, 18, 29, 48], given the limited knowledge of the physiopathology of this manifestation of the disease [19].

 

In the present study, two (2/8) positive animals presented the haplotype ARR/ARR, which is considered to be the least susceptible and therefore responsible for the lowest risk of scrapie. However, like all sheep that were genotyped, these animals did not present any change in lysine in codon position 141. This change (that is, when lysine is replaced by phenylalanine) has been associated with atypical scrapie in Suffolk sheep [6]. Therefore, these two ARR/ARR sheep do not fit in the genotypic characteristics of sheep that may commonly present the atypical form. It is possible that the presence of several crossbred animals of different flocks and farms in the same environment, which characterizes an heterogeneous flock, has created the favorable conditions for the disease to evolve and spread, infecting the more susceptible animals.

 

The variation in the frequency of the PrP genotype between flocks has been identified as a real risk factor for the disease [4]. The introduction of adult sheep free of scrapie in contaminated flocks is believed to allow lateral transmission, even between adult animals with less susceptible genotypes [40, 45], although young sheep are more predisposed [43]. Other reasons behind differences in occurrence include the stress caused during husbandry and large population numbers [26]. Additionally, the lack of a defined epidemiological pattern and the different strains of the causal agent play an important role in inter-flock variability [40]. Several models were based on the assumption that outbreak duration is influenced by flock size and by the frequency of the PrP genotype in one flock [25, 26, 38, 51]. Commercial flocks with high genetic diversity, mainly in codons other than 136, 154 and 171, are more consistently affected. In these animals, the onset of clinical manifestations occurs at significantly different ages, with means varying from 2 to 5.7 years, due to noteworthy dissimilarities in age and PrP genotype profiles [40]. The purchase of infected animals has been pointed out as the main scrapie infection mechanism in flocks [27, 41].

 

*** The diagnosis of scrapie in two homozygous ARR/ARR sheep indicates that the resistance of this genotype to the classical form of the disease is debatable. Although scrapie in these animals is rare, the cases presented in this case report lend strength to the notion that its occurrence depends on a combination of infectious factors, including differences in biological and biochemical properties in the natural hosts to this prion.

 

MANUFACTURERS 1VMRD Pullman Albion Road. Pullman, WA, USA. 2Qiagen. Hilden, Germany. 3InvitrogenTM. São Paulo, Brazil. 4Life TechnologiesTM. Gaithersburg, MD, USA. 5InvitrogenTM. Carlsbad, CA, USA. 6Applied Biosystems Inc. Foster City, CA, USA. Declaration of interest. The authors report no conflicts of interest. The authors alone are responsible for the content and writing of the paper.

 


 

Monday, May 5, 2014 Brazil 2nd BSE Mad Cow disease confirmed OIE 02/05/2014 http://bovineprp.blogspot.com/2014/05/brazil-bse-mad-cow-disease-confirmed.html Thursday, April 24, 2014

 

Brazil investigates possible BSE mad cow case

 


 

Brazil evaluate the implementation of health rules on animal by-products and derived products SRM BST TSE PRION aka MAD COW DISEASE http://bse-atypical.blogspot.com/2013/09/brazil-evaluate-implementation-of.html

 

Friday, December 07, 2012

 

ATYPICAL BSE BRAZIL 2010 FINALLY CONFIRMED OIE 2012 http://bse-atypical.blogspot.com/2012/12/atypical-bse-brazil-2010-finally.html Wednesday, December 19, 2012

 

Scientific Report of the European Food Safety Authority on the Assessment of the Geographical BSE Risk (GBR) of Brazil http://bse-atypical.blogspot.com/2012/12/scientific-report-of-european-food.html

 

 Assessment of the PrPc amino-terminal domain in prion species barriers

 

Kristen A. Davenporta, Davin M. Hendersona, Candace K. Mathiasona and Edward A. Hoovera# + Author Affiliations

 

Prion Research Center, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523a ABSTRACT Chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle are prion diseases that are caused by the same protein-misfolding mechanism, but appear to pose different risks to humans. We are interested in understanding the differences between the species barriers of CWD and BSE. We used real-time, quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) to model the central molecular event in prion disease, the templated misfolding of the normal prion protein, PrPc, to a pathogenic, amyloid isoform, PrPSc. We examined the role of the PrPc amino-terminal domain (NTD, aa23-90) in cross-species conversion by comparing the conversion efficiency of various prion seeds in either full-length (aa23-231) or truncated (aa90-231) PrPc. We demonstrate that the presence of white-tailed deer and bovine NTDs hindered seeded conversion of PrPc, but human and bank vole NTDs did the opposite. Additionally, full-length human and bank vole PrPc were more likely to be converted to amyloid by CWD prions than were their truncated forms. A chimera with replacement of the human NTD by the bovine NTD resembled human PrPc. The requirement for an NTD, but not for the specific human sequence, suggests that the NTD interacts with other regions of the human PrPc to increase promiscuity. These data contribute to the evidence that, in addition to primary sequence, prion species barriers are controlled by interactions of the substrate NTD with the rest of the substrate PrPc molecule.

 

Importance We demonstrate that the amino-terminal domain of the normal prion protein, PrPc, hinders seeded conversion of bovine and white-tailed deer PrPc to the prion form, but it facilitates conversion of the human and bank vole PrPc to the prion form. Additionally, we demonstrate that the amino-terminal domain of human and bank vole PrPc requires interaction with the rest of the molecule to facilitate conversion by CWD prions. These data suggest that interactions of the amino-terminal domain with the rest of the PrPc molecule play an important role in the susceptibility of humans to CWD prions.

 

snip...

 

We found that human rPrPc can be readily converted to an amyloid state by CWD prions, and that the NTD facilitates this conversion. As there is little evidence for the susceptibility of humans to CWD, the biologic significance of our observation remains to be determined. However, the role of the NTD in this in vitro phenomenon may be important to the in vivo mechanism as well. RT-QuIC, transgenic mouse bioassay, and PMCA measure different outcomes. This manuscript compares the efficiency of initial amyloid formation, while bioassay and PMCA reflect total accumulation of protease-resistant PrPSc, which may explain the difference in the apparent susceptibility of full-length human rPrPc in these models. The molecular underpinnings for species barriers and trans-species prion conversion remain a complex, yet important problem in prion biology. We propose that an interaction between the amino terminal

 

FOOTNOTES

 

↵#Address correspondence to Edward A. Hoover, edward.hoover@colostate.edu Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

 


 


 

‘’We demonstrate that the presence of white-tailed deer and bovine NTDs hindered seeded conversion of PrPc, but human and bank vole NTDs did the opposite. Additionally, full-length human and bank vole PrPc were more likely to be converted to amyloid by CWD prions than were their truncated forms. ‘’

 

***Moreover, sporadic disease has never been observed in breeding colonies or primate research laboratories, most notably among hundreds of animals over several decades of study at the National Institutes of Health25, and in nearly twenty older animals continuously housed in our own facility.***

 


 

Monday, May 02, 2016

 

*** Zoonotic Potential of CWD Prions: An Update Prion 2016 Tokyo ***

 


 

SCRAPIE AND CWD ZOONOSIS

 

PRION 2016 CONFERENCE TOKYO

 

Saturday, April 23, 2016

 

*** SCRAPIE WS-01: Prion diseases in animals and zoonotic potential 2016 ***

 

Prion. 10:S15-S21. 2016 ISSN: 1933-6896 printl 1933-690X

 


 


 

Saturday, September 24, 2016

 

Assessment of the PrPc amino-terminal domain in prion species barriers

 


 

Transmission of scrapie prions to primate after an extended silent incubation period

 

***Moreover, sporadic disease has never been observed in breeding colonies or primate research laboratories, most notably among hundreds of animals over several decades of study at the National Institutes of Health25, and in nearly twenty older animals continuously housed in our own facility.***

 


 

Transmission of scrapie prions to primate after an extended silent incubation period

 

Emmanuel E. Comoy , Jacqueline Mikol , Sophie Luccantoni-Freire , Evelyne Correia , Nathalie Lescoutra-Etchegaray , Valérie Durand , Capucine Dehen , Olivier Andreoletti , Cristina Casalone , Juergen A. Richt , Justin J. Greenlee , Thierry Baron , Sylvie L. Benestad , Paul Brown & Jean-Philippe Deslys

 

Abstract

 

Classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (c-BSE) is the only animal prion disease reputed to be zoonotic, causing variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans and having guided protective measures for animal and human health against animal prion diseases. Recently, partial transmissions to humanized mice showed that the zoonotic potential of scrapie might be similar to c-BSE. We here report the direct transmission of a natural classical scrapie isolate to cynomolgus macaque, a highly relevant model for human prion diseases, after a 10-year silent incubation period, with features similar to those reported for human cases of sporadic CJD. Scrapie is thus actually transmissible to primates with incubation periods compatible with their life expectancy, although fourfold longer than BSE. Long-term experimental transmission studies are necessary to better assess the zoonotic potential of other prion diseases with high prevalence, notably Chronic Wasting Disease of deer and elk and atypical/Nor98 scrapie.

 

snip...

 

In addition to previous studies on scrapie transmission to primate1,8,9 and the recently published study on transgenic humanized mice13, our results constitute new evidence for recommending that the potential risk of scrapie for human health should not be dismissed. Indeed, human PrP transgenic mice and primates are the most relevant models for investigating the human transmission barrier. To what extent such models are informative for measuring the zoonotic potential of an animal TSE under field exposure conditions is unknown. During the past decades, many protective measures have been successfully implemented to protect cattle from the spread of c-BSE, and some of these measures have been extended to sheep and goats to protect from scrapie according to the principle of precaution. Since cases of c-BSE have greatly reduced in number, those protective measures are currently being challenged and relaxed in the absence of other known zoonotic animal prion disease. We recommend that risk managers should be aware of the long term potential risk to human health of at least certain scrapie isolates, notably for lymphotropic strains like the classical scrapie strain used in the current study. Relatively high amounts of infectivity in peripheral lymphoid organs in animals infected with these strains could lead to contamination of food products produced for human consumption. Efforts should also be maintained to further assess the zoonotic potential of other animal prion strains in long-term studies, notably lymphotropic strains with high prevalence like CWD, which is spreading across North America, and atypical/Nor98 scrapie (Nor98)50 that was first detected in the past two decades and now represents approximately half of all reported cases of prion diseases in small ruminants worldwide, including territories previously considered as scrapie free. Even if the prevailing view is that sporadic CJD is due to the spontaneous formation of CJD prions, it remains possible that its apparent sporadic nature may, at least in part, result from our limited capacity to identify an environmental origin.

 

***Moreover, sporadic disease has never been observed in breeding colonies or primate research laboratories, most notably among hundreds of animals over several decades of study at the National Institutes of Health25, and in nearly twenty older animals continuously housed in our own facility.***

 


 


 

2015

 

O.05: Transmission of prions to primates after extended silent incubation periods: Implications for BSE and scrapie risk assessment in human populations

 

Emmanuel Comoy, Jacqueline Mikol, Valerie Durand, Sophie Luccantoni, Evelyne Correia, Nathalie Lescoutra, Capucine Dehen, and Jean-Philippe Deslys Atomic Energy Commission; Fontenay-aux-Roses, France

 

Prion diseases (PD) are the unique neurodegenerative proteinopathies reputed to be transmissible under field conditions since decades. The transmission of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) to humans evidenced that an animal PD might be zoonotic under appropriate conditions. Contrarily, in the absence of obvious (epidemiological or experimental) elements supporting a transmission or genetic predispositions, PD, like the other proteinopathies, are reputed to occur spontaneously (atpical animal prion strains, sporadic CJD summing 80% of human prion cases). Non-human primate models provided the first evidences supporting the transmissibiity of human prion strains and the zoonotic potential of BSE. Among them, cynomolgus macaques brought major information for BSE risk assessment for human health (Chen, 2014), according to their phylogenetic proximity to humans and extended lifetime. We used this model to assess the zoonotic potential of other animal PD from bovine, ovine and cervid origins even after very long silent incubation periods.

 

*** We recently observed the direct transmission of a natural classical scrapie isolate to macaque after a 10-year silent incubation period,

 

***with features similar to some reported for human cases of sporadic CJD, albeit requiring fourfold long incubation than BSE. Scrapie, as recently evoked in humanized mice (Cassard, 2014),

 

***is the third potentially zoonotic PD (with BSE and L-type BSE),

 

***thus questioning the origin of human sporadic cases. We will present an updated panorama of our different transmission studies and discuss the implications of such extended incubation periods on risk assessment of animal PD for human health.

 

===============

 

***thus questioning the origin of human sporadic cases***

 

===============

 

***our findings suggest that possible transmission risk of H-type BSE to sheep and human. Bioassay will be required to determine whether the PMCA products are infectious to these animals.

 

==============

 


 

CWD TSE PRION HUMAN ZOONOSIS POTENTIAL, has it already happened, and being masked as sporadic CJD? and what about iatrogenic, or the pass if forward, friendly fire mode of transmission of cwd to humans, same thing, sporadic cjd ?

 

*** WDA 2016 NEW YORK ***

 

We found that CWD adapts to a new host more readily than BSE and that human PrP was unexpectedly prone to misfolding by CWD prions. In addition, we investigated the role of specific regions of the bovine, deer and human PrP protein in resistance to conversion by prions from another species. We have concluded that the human protein has a region that confers unusual susceptibility to conversion by CWD prions.

 

Student Presentations Session 2

 

The species barriers and public health threat of CWD and BSE prions

 

Ms. Kristen Davenport1, Dr. Davin Henderson1, Dr. Candace Mathiason1, Dr. Edward Hoover1 1Colorado State University

 

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is spreading rapidly through cervid populations in the USA. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, mad cow disease) arose in the 1980s because cattle were fed recycled animal protein. These and other prion diseases are caused by abnormal folding of the normal prion protein (PrP) into a disease causing form (PrPd), which is pathogenic to nervous system cells and can cause subsequent PrP to misfold. CWD spreads among cervids very efficiently, but it has not yet infected humans. On the other hand, BSE was spread only when cattle consumed infected bovine or ovine tissue, but did infect humans and other species. The objective of this research is to understand the role of PrP structure in cross-species infection by CWD and BSE. To study the propensity of each species’ PrP to be induced to misfold by the presence of PrPd from verious species, we have used an in vitro system that permits detection of PrPd in real-time. We measured the conversion efficiency of various combinations of PrPd seeds and PrP substrate combinations. We observed the cross-species behavior of CWD and BSE, in addition to feline-adapted CWD and BSE. We found that CWD adapts to a new host more readily than BSE and that human PrP was unexpectedly prone to misfolding by CWD prions. In addition, we investigated the role of specific regions of the bovine, deer and human PrP protein in resistance to conversion by prions from another species. We have concluded that the human protein has a region that confers unusual susceptibility to conversion by CWD prions. CWD is unique among prion diseases in its rapid spread in natural populations. BSE prions are essentially unaltered upon passage to a new species, while CWD adapts to the new species. This adaptation has consequences for surveillance of humans exposed to CWD.

 

Wildlife Disease Risk Communication Research Contributes to Wildlife Trust Administration Exploring perceptions about chronic wasting disease risks among wildlife and agriculture professionals and stakeholders

 

Ms. Alyssa Wetterau1, Dr. Krysten Schuler1, Dr. Elizabeth Bunting1, Dr. Hussni Mohammed1 1Cornell University

 

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal disease of North American Cervidae. New York State (NYS, USA) successfully managed an outbreak of CWD in 2005 in both captive and wild white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with no reoccurrence of the disease as of 2015. To attain maximum compliance and efficacy of management actions for prevention of CWD entry, understanding the varied risk perceptions will allow for targeted, proactive communication efforts to address divergences between expert-derived risk assessments and stakeholder risk perceptions. We examined perceived risks associated with CWD introduction and exposure among agricultural and wildlife agency professionals within and outside of NYS, as well as stakeholder groups (e.g., hunters and captive cervid owners). We measured perceived risk using a risk assessment questionnaire online via Qualtrics survey software and evaluated similarities within, as well as differences in, perception among participant groups. New York State biologists employed by the Department of Environmental Conservation and independent non-NYS wildlife and agricultural professionals thought CWD risks associated with captive cervids were high; captive cervid owners thought risks for wild and captive cervids were low. Agriculture and wildlife professional groups agreed on general risk perceptions. We ranked 15 individual risk hazards into high and low medium categories based on all responses. Differences between groups were most evident in hypothetical disease pathways. Any pathway involving inter-state import of live cervids received high ranking for all groups except captive cervid owners. Comparatively low risk perceptions by captive cervid operators may stem from misinformation, lack of understanding of testing programs, and indemnity payments for animal depopulation. Communication and education directed at areas of disagreement may facilitate effective disease prevention and management.

 


 


 

* No evaluation of determination of CWD risk is required for alternative livestock or captive wildlife shipped directly to slaughter or to a biosecure facility approved by the Division and the Dept. of Agriculture.

 


 

*** We found that CWD adapts to a new host more readily than BSE and that human PrP was unexpectedly prone to misfolding by CWD prions. In addition, we investigated the role of specific regions of the bovine, deer and human PrP protein in resistance to conversion by prions from another species. We have concluded that the human protein has a region that confers unusual susceptibility to conversion by CWD prions. CWD is unique among prion diseases in its rapid spread in natural populations. BSE prions are essentially unaltered upon passage to a new species, while CWD adapts to the new species. This adaptation has consequences for surveillance of humans exposed to CWD. ***

 

PRION 2016 TOKYO

 

Zoonotic Potential of CWD Prions: An Update

 

Ignazio Cali1, Liuting Qing1, Jue Yuan1, Shenghai Huang2, Diane Kofskey1,3, Nicholas Maurer1, Debbie McKenzie4, Jiri Safar1,3,5, Wenquan Zou1,3,5,6, Pierluigi Gambetti1, Qingzhong Kong1,5,6

 

1Department of Pathology, 3National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center, 5Department of Neurology, 6National Center for Regenerative Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.

 

4Department of Biological Sciences and Center for Prions and Protein Folding Diseases, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada,

 

2Encore Health Resources, 1331 Lamar St, Houston, TX 77010

 

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a widespread and highly transmissible prion disease in free-ranging and captive cervid species in North America. The zoonotic potential of CWD prions is a serious public health concern, but the susceptibility of human CNS and peripheral organs to CWD prions remains largely unresolved. We reported earlier that peripheral and CNS infections were detected in transgenic mice expressing human PrP129M or PrP129V. Here we will present an update on this project, including evidence for strain dependence and influence of cervid PrP polymorphisms on CWD zoonosis as well as the characteristics of experimental human CWD prions.

 

PRION 2016 TOKYO

 

In Conjunction with Asia Pacific Prion Symposium 2016

 

PRION 2016 Tokyo

 

Prion 2016

 


 

Tuesday, December 16, 2014

 

Evidence for zoonotic potential of ovine scrapie prions

 

Hervé Cassard,1, n1 Juan-Maria Torres,2, n1 Caroline Lacroux,1, Jean-Yves Douet,1, Sylvie L. Benestad,3, Frédéric Lantier,4, Séverine Lugan,1, Isabelle Lantier,4, Pierrette Costes,1, Naima Aron,1, Fabienne Reine,5, Laetitia Herzog,5, Juan-Carlos Espinosa,2, Vincent Beringue5, & Olivier Andréoletti1, Affiliations Contributions Corresponding author Journal name: Nature Communications Volume: 5, Article number: 5821 DOI: doi:10.1038/ncomms6821 Received 07 August 2014 Accepted 10 November 2014 Published 16 December 2014 Article tools Citation Reprints Rights & permissions Article metrics

 

Abstract

 

Although Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) is the cause of variant Creutzfeldt Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans, the zoonotic potential of scrapie prions remains unknown. Mice genetically engineered to overexpress the human ​prion protein (tgHu) have emerged as highly relevant models for gauging the capacity of prions to transmit to humans. These models can propagate human prions without any apparent transmission barrier and have been used used to confirm the zoonotic ability of BSE. Here we show that a panel of sheep scrapie prions transmit to several tgHu mice models with an efficiency comparable to that of cattle BSE. The serial transmission of different scrapie isolates in these mice led to the propagation of prions that are phenotypically identical to those causing sporadic CJD (sCJD) in humans. These results demonstrate that scrapie prions have a zoonotic potential and raise new questions about the possible link between animal and human prions.

 

Subject terms: Biological sciences• Medical research At a glance

 


 

*** In complement to the recent demonstration that humanized mice are susceptible to scrapie, we report here the first observation of direct transmission of a natural classical scrapie isolate to a macaque after a 10-year incubation period. Neuropathologic examination revealed all of the features of a prion disease: spongiform change, neuronal loss, and accumulation of PrPres throughout the CNS.

 

*** This observation strengthens the questioning of the harmlessness of scrapie to humans, at a time when protective measures for human and animal health are being dismantled and reduced as c-BSE is considered controlled and being eradicated.

 

*** Our results underscore the importance of precautionary and protective measures and the necessity for long-term experimental transmission studies to assess the zoonotic potential of other animal prion strains.

 


 

Prion. 10:S15-S21. 2016 ISSN: 1933-6896 printl 1933-690X online

 

Taylor & Francis

 

Prion 2016 Animal Prion Disease Workshop Abstracts

 

WS-01: Prion diseases in animals and zoonotic potential

 

Juan Maria Torres a, Olivier Andreoletti b, J uan-Carlos Espinosa a. Vincent Beringue c. Patricia Aguilar a,

 

Natalia Fernandez-Borges a. and Alba Marin-Moreno a

 

"Centro de Investigacion en Sanidad Animal ( CISA-INIA ). Valdeolmos, Madrid. Spain; b UMR INRA -ENVT 1225 Interactions Holes Agents Pathogenes. ENVT. Toulouse. France: "UR892. Virologie lmmunologie MolécuIaires, Jouy-en-Josas. France

 

Dietary exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) contaminated bovine tissues is considered as the origin of variant Creutzfeldt Jakob (vCJD) disease in human. To date, BSE agent is the only recognized zoonotic prion. Despite the variety of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE) agents that have been circulating for centuries in farmed ruminants there is no apparent epidemiological link between exposure to ruminant products and the occurrence of other form of TSE in human like sporadic Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease (sCJD). However, the zoonotic potential of the diversity of circulating TSE agents has never been systematically assessed. The major issue in experimental assessment of TSEs zoonotic potential lies in the modeling of the ‘species barrier‘, the biological phenomenon that limits TSE agents’ propagation from a species to another. In the last decade, mice genetically engineered to express normal forms of the human prion protein has proved essential in studying human prions pathogenesis and modeling the capacity of TSEs to cross the human species barrier.

 

To assess the zoonotic potential of prions circulating in farmed ruminants, we study their transmission ability in transgenic mice expressing human PrPC (HuPrP-Tg). Two lines of mice expressing different forms of the human PrPC (129Met or 129Val) are used to determine the role of the Met129Val dimorphism in susceptibility/resistance to the different agents.

 

These transmission experiments confirm the ability of BSE prions to propagate in 129M- HuPrP-Tg mice and demonstrate that Met129 homozygotes may be susceptible to BSE in sheep or goat to a greater degree than the BSE agent in cattle and that these agents can convey molecular properties and neuropathological indistinguishable from vCJD. However homozygous 129V mice are resistant to all tested BSE derived prions independently of the originating species suggesting a higher transmission barrier for 129V-PrP variant.

 

Transmission data also revealed that several scrapie prions propagate in HuPrP-Tg mice with efficiency comparable to that of cattle BSE. While the efficiency of transmission at primary passage was low, subsequent passages resulted in a highly virulent prion disease in both Met129 and Val129 mice. Transmission of the different scrapie isolates in these mice leads to the emergence of prion strain phenotypes that showed similar characteristics to those displayed by MM1 or VV2 sCJD prion. These results demonstrate that scrapie prions have a zoonotic potential and raise new questions about the possible link between animal and human prions.

 


 


 

2016

 

SCRAPIE AND CWD ZOONOSIS

 

PRION 2016 CONFERENCE TOKYO

 

Saturday, April 23, 2016

 

*** SCRAPIE WS-01: Prion diseases in animals and zoonotic potential 2016 ***

 

Prion. 10:S15-S21. 2016 ISSN: 1933-6896 printl 1933-690X

 


 

Transmission of scrapie prions to primate after an extended silent incubation period

 

***Moreover, sporadic disease has never been observed in breeding colonies or primate research laboratories, most notably among hundreds of animals over several decades of study at the National Institutes of Health25, and in nearly twenty older animals continuously housed in our own facility.***

 


 

Transmission of scrapie prions to primate after an extended silent incubation period

 

Emmanuel E. Comoy , Jacqueline Mikol , Sophie Luccantoni-Freire , Evelyne Correia , Nathalie Lescoutra-Etchegaray , Valérie Durand , Capucine Dehen , Olivier Andreoletti , Cristina Casalone , Juergen A. Richt , Justin J. Greenlee , Thierry Baron , Sylvie L. Benestad , Paul Brown & Jean-Philippe Deslys

 

Abstract

 

Classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (c-BSE) is the only animal prion disease reputed to be zoonotic, causing variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans and having guided protective measures for animal and human health against animal prion diseases. Recently, partial transmissions to humanized mice showed that the zoonotic potential of scrapie might be similar to c-BSE. We here report the direct transmission of a natural classical scrapie isolate to cynomolgus macaque, a highly relevant model for human prion diseases, after a 10-year silent incubation period, with features similar to those reported for human cases of sporadic CJD. Scrapie is thus actually transmissible to primates with incubation periods compatible with their life expectancy, although fourfold longer than BSE. Long-term experimental transmission studies are necessary to better assess the zoonotic potential of other prion diseases with high prevalence, notably Chronic Wasting Disease of deer and elk and atypical/Nor98 scrapie.

 

snip...

 

In addition to previous studies on scrapie transmission to primate1,8,9 and the recently published study on transgenic humanized mice13, our results constitute new evidence for recommending that the potential risk of scrapie for human health should not be dismissed. Indeed, human PrP transgenic mice and primates are the most relevant models for investigating the human transmission barrier. To what extent such models are informative for measuring the zoonotic potential of an animal TSE under field exposure conditions is unknown. During the past decades, many protective measures have been successfully implemented to protect cattle from the spread of c-BSE, and some of these measures have been extended to sheep and goats to protect from scrapie according to the principle of precaution. Since cases of c-BSE have greatly reduced in number, those protective measures are currently being challenged and relaxed in the absence of other known zoonotic animal prion disease. We recommend that risk managers should be aware of the long term potential risk to human health of at least certain scrapie isolates, notably for lymphotropic strains like the classical scrapie strain used in the current study. Relatively high amounts of infectivity in peripheral lymphoid organs in animals infected with these strains could lead to contamination of food products produced for human consumption. Efforts should also be maintained to further assess the zoonotic potential of other animal prion strains in long-term studies, notably lymphotropic strains with high prevalence like CWD, which is spreading across North America, and atypical/Nor98 scrapie (Nor98)50 that was first detected in the past two decades and now represents approximately half of all reported cases of prion diseases in small ruminants worldwide, including territories previously considered as scrapie free. Even if the prevailing view is that sporadic CJD is due to the spontaneous formation of CJD prions, it remains possible that its apparent sporadic nature may, at least in part, result from our limited capacity to identify an environmental origin.

 

***Moreover, sporadic disease has never been observed in breeding colonies or primate research laboratories, most notably among hundreds of animals over several decades of study at the National Institutes of Health25, and in nearly twenty older animals continuously housed in our own facility.***

 


 


 

why do we not want to do TSE transmission studies on chimpanzees $

 

5. A positive result from a chimpanzee challenged severly would likely create alarm in some circles even if the result could not be interpreted for man. I have a view that all these agents could be transmitted provided a large enough dose by appropriate routes was given and the animals kept long enough. Until the mechanisms of the species barrier are more clearly understood it might be best to retain that hypothesis.

 

snip...

 

R. BRADLEY

 


 

1978 SCRAPIE IN CONFIDENCE SCJD

 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 

1979

 

SILENCE ON CJD AND SCRAPIE

 

1980

 

SILENCE ON CJD AND SCRAPIE

 

*** 1981 NOVEMBER

 


 


 

Thursday, August 04, 2016

 

*** MEETING ON THE FEASIBILITY OF CARRYING OUT EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON CREUTZFELDT JAKOB DISEASE 1978 THE SCRAPIE FILES IN CONFIDENCE CONFIDENTIAL SCJD

 


 

Sunday, August 28, 2016

 

CONFIDENTIAL

 

Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy TSE Prion and how Politics and Greed by the Industry spread madcow type diseases from species to species and around the globe

 

TSE PRIONS AKA MAD COW TYPE DISEASE, LIONS AND TIGERS AND BEARS, OH MY!

 

Please be assured, the USA does NOT have any clue as to what the real perspective on the TSE prion disease in domestic feline and canine, much less our big wild cats, OR any other species including humans for that matter, but one thing for sure, the studies and history of the mad cow debacle below are deeply concerning with regards, to humans and wild big cats like mountain lions, cougars, lynx, Jaguar, and such, that feed on cervids that are infected with CWD. one thing for sure, don’t kid yourselves, all are very much susceptible to the TSE Prion disease, and if you don’t look, you don’t find, problems solved$$$

 


 

Tuesday, September 06, 2016

 

A comparison of classical and H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy associated with E211K prion protein polymorphism in wild type and EK211 cattle following intracranial inoculation

 


 

Tuesday, July 26, 2016

 

Atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy BSE TSE Prion UPDATE JULY 2016

 


 

Saturday, July 23, 2016

 

BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY BSE TSE PRION SURVEILLANCE, TESTING, AND SRM REMOVAL UNITED STATE OF AMERICA UPDATE JULY 2016

 


 

*** Calling Canadian beef unsafe is like calling your twin sister ugly," Dopp said. ***

 

Thursday, August 25, 2016

 

*** FSIS Green Bay Dressed Beef Recalls Beef Products Due To Possible Specified Risk Materials Contamination the most high risk materials for BSE TSE PRION AKA MAD COW TYPE DISEASE ***

 


 

Monday, June 20, 2016

 

Specified Risk Materials SRMs BSE TSE Prion Program

 


 

Friday, August 26, 2016

 

*** Journal Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A Volume 79, 2016 - Issue 16-17 Prion Research in Perspective IV CANADA BSE CWD SCRAPIE CJD TSE Prion Disease

 


 

Saturday, July 16, 2016

 

Importation of Sheep, Goats, and Certain Other Ruminants [Docket No. APHIS-2009-0095]RIN 0579-AD10

 

WITH great disgust and concern, I report to you that the OIE, USDA, APHIS, are working to further legalize the trading of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy TSE Pion disease around the globe.

 

THIS is absolutely insane. it’s USDA INC.

 


 

Monday, September 19, 2016

 

Evidence of scrapie transmission to sheep via goat milk

 


 

Saturday, April 16, 2016

 

*** APHIS [Docket No. APHIS-2016-0029] Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting May 2, 2016, and June 16, 2016 Singeltary Submission ***

 


 

Wednesday, January 20, 2016

 

Exportation of Live Animals, Hatching Eggs, and Animal Germplasm From the United States [Docket No. APHIS-2012-0049] RIN 0579-AE00 2016-00962

 


 

Thursday, January 14, 2016

 

EMERGING ANIMAL DISEASES Actions Needed to Better Position USDA to Address Future Risks Report to the Chairman, Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives December 2015 GAO-16-132

 

GAO

 


 

Saturday, July 23, 2016

 

BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY BSE TSE PRION SURVEILLANCE, TESTING, AND SRM REMOVAL UNITED STATE OF AMERICA UPDATE JULY 2016

 


 

Wednesday, May 2, 2012

 

ARS FLIP FLOPS ON SRM REMOVAL FOR ATYPICAL L-TYPE BASE BSE RISK HUMAN AND ANIMAL HEALTH

 


 

Saturday, June 12, 2010

 

PUBLICATION REQUEST AND FOIA REQUEST Project Number: 3625-32000-086-05 Study of Atypical Bse

 


 

Wednesday, July 28, 2010

 

re-Freedom of Information Act Project Number 3625-32000-086-05, Study of Atypical BSE UPDATE July 28, 2010

 


 

Terry S. Singeltary Sr. Bacliff, Texas USA 77518 flounder9@verizon.net

 

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