Prions Are Secreted in Milk from Clinically Normal Scrapie-Exposed Sheep
Prions Are Secreted in Milk from Clinically Normal Scrapie-Exposed Sheep
B. C. Maddison,1 C. A. Baker,1 H. C. Rees,2 L. A. Terry,3 L. Thorne,3 S. J. Bellworthy,3 G. C. Whitelam,2 and K. C. Gough4* ADAS UK, Department of Biology, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, United Kingdom,1 Department of Biology, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, United Kingdom,2 Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Woodham Lane, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, United Kingdom,3 School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, The University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, College Road, Sutton Bonington, Leicestershire LE12 5RD, United Kingdom4
Received 9 January 2009/ Accepted 27 May 2009
The potential spread of prion infectivity in secreta is a crucial concern for prion disease transmission. Here, serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA) allowed the detection of prions in milk from clinically affected animals as well as scrapie-exposed sheep at least 20 months before clinical onset of disease, irrespective of the immunohistochemical detection of protease-resistant PrPSc within lymphoreticular and central nervous system tissues. These data indicate the secretion of prions within milk during the early stages of disease progression and a role for milk in prion transmission. Furthermore, the application of sPMCA to milk samples offers a noninvasive methodology to detect scrapie during preclinical/subclinical disease.
* Corresponding author. Mailing address: School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, The University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, College Road, Sutton Bonington, Leicestershire LE12 5RD, United Kingdom. Phone: 44-115-9516272. Fax: 44-115-9516440. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Published ahead of print on 3 June 2009.
Journal of Virology, August 2009, p. 8293-8296, Vol. 83, No. 16 0022-538X/09/$08.00+0 doi:10.1128/JVI.00051-09 Copyright © 2009, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
TAFS INTERNATIONAL FORUM FOR TRANSMISSIBLE ANIMAL DISEASES AND FOOD SAFETY a non-profit Swiss Foundation (January, 2009) TAFS1 STATEMENT ON TRANSMISSION OF SCRAPIE VIA MILK
Friday, December 12, 2008 Prions in Milk from Ewes Incubating Natural Scrapie
Sheep consumption: a possible source of spongiform encephalopathy in humans.
Davanipour Z, Alter M, ***el E, Callahan M.
A fatal spongiform encephalopathy of sheep and goats (scrapie) shares many characteristics with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), a similar dementing illness of humans. To investigate the possibility that CJD is acquired by ingestion of contaminated sheep products, we collected information on production, slaughtering practices, and marketing of sheep in Pennsylvania. The study revealed that sheep were usually marketed before central nervous system signs of scrapie are expected to appear; breeds known to be susceptible to the disease were the most common breeds raised in the area; sheep were imported from other states including those with a high frequency of scrapie; use of veterinary services on the sheep farms investigated and, hence, opportunities to detect the disease were limited; sheep producers in the area knew little about scrapie despite the fact that the disease has been reported in the area, and animal organs including sheep organs were sometimes included in processed food. Therefore, it was concluded that in Pennsylvania there are some 'weak links' through which scrapie-infected animals could contaminate human food, and that consumption of these foods could perhaps account for spongiform encephalopathy in humans. The weak links observed are probably not unique to Pennsylvania.
Oral transmission of kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and scrapie to nonhuman primates.
Gibbs CJ Jr, Amyx HL, Bacote A, Masters CL, Gajdusek DC.
Kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease of humans and scrapie disease of sheep and goats were transmitted to squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) that were exposed to the infectious agents only by their nonforced consumption of known infectious tissues. The asymptomatic incubation period in the one monkey exposed to the virus of kuru was 36 months; that in the two monkeys exposed to the virus of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was 23 and 27 months, respectively; and that in the two monkeys exposed to the virus of scrapie was 25 and 32 months, respectively. Careful physical examination of the buccal cavities of all of the monkeys failed to reveal signs or oral lesions. One additional monkey similarly exposed to kuru has remained asymptomatic during the 39 months that it has been under observation.
Full Scientific Reports
Experimental oral transmission of United States origin scrapie to neonatal sheep
Amir N. Hamir1, Robert A. Kunkle, Justin J. Greenlee and Juergen A. Richt Correspondence: 1Corresponding Author: Amir N. Hamir, National Animal Disease Center, ARS, USDA, 2300 Dayton Avenue, PO Box 70, Ames, IA 50010. email@example.com
Scrapie, a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE), is a naturally occurring fatal neurodegenerative disease of sheep and goats. The current study documents incubation periods, pathologic findings, and distribution of abnormal prion proteins (PrPSc) by immunohistochemistry and Western blot in tissues of genetically susceptible and resistant neonatal lambs inoculated with pooled brain homogenates from 13 U.S. origin scrapie-affected ewes. Nine Suffolk lambs with genotypes AA/RR/QQ (n = 5) and AA/RR/QR (n = 4) at codons 136, 154, and 171, respectively) were orally inoculated, within 12 hr of birth, with 1 ml of a 10% (w/v) brain homogenate prepared from scrapie-affected sheep brains. Inoculated animals were euthanized when advanced clinical signs of scrapie were observed. All QQ sheep developed clinical signs of scrapie, with a mean survival time of 24 months. Spongiform lesions in the brains and PrPSc deposits in the central nervous system and lymphoid tissues were present in these sheep. None of the QR sheep succumbed to the disease. A previous study that used a larger volume (30 ml of 10% brain suspension) of the same inoculum in 4-month-old Suffolk lambs of susceptible genotype documented longer survival periods (average 32 months), and only 5 of 9 inoculated sheep developed scrapie. Findings of this study suggest that orally exposed neonatal lambs of a susceptible (QQ) genotype exhibit a higher attack rate and shorter incubation period than older (4-month-old) lambs exposed to a larger dose (30x) of the same inoculum.
Key Words: Immunohistochemistry . neonatal sheep . scrapie . spongiform encephalopathy . Western blot
EVIDENCE OF SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AS A RESULT OF FOOD BORNE EXPOSURE
This is provided by the statistically significant increase in the incidence of sheep scrape from 1985, as determined from analyses of the submissions made to VI Centres, and from individual case and flock incident studies. ........
Title: Characterization of a U.S. Sheep Scrapie Isolate with Short Incubation Time
Hamir, Amirali Richt, Juergen Kunkle, Robert Greenlee, Justin Bulgin, M - UNIVERSITY OF IDAHO Gregori, L - VA MEDICAL CENTER, MD Rohwer, R - VA MEDICAL CENTER, MD
Submitted to: Veterinary Pathology Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal Publication Acceptance Date: April 16, 2009 Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: Scrapie is a naturally occurring fatal disease of sheep and goats. In a previous study it was shown that sheep inoculated with US scrapie inoculum (No. 13-7) induced terminal disease within an average of 19 months. We have since produced an inoculum, No. X124 from pooled brains of US origin sheep scrapie, that results in incubations nearly 3 fold shorter. The present study documents laboratory findings in tissues of sheep inoculated with No. X124. All inoculated sheep developed clinical disease and were euthanized within an average of 7.7 months post inoculation (MPI). Sheep that were genetically susceptible developed the disease faster (within 6 months). Also, the inoculum was able to induce disease in a short time (7 MPI) in a sheep that was supposed to be highly resistant to scrapie. This indicates that inoculum No. X124 appears to be more virulent than inoculum No. 13-7. Importantly this strain of scrapie represents a significant development in that it provides a natural model that requires less than 25 percent of the time for the disease to develop, thus enabling a faster pace for research investigating prion disease pathogenesis and inactivation. Technical Abstract: Scrapie is a naturally occurring fatal neurodegenerative disease of sheep and goats. Susceptibility to the disease is partly dependent upon the genetic makeup of the host. In a previous study it was shown that sheep intracerebrally inoculated with US scrapie inoculum (No. 13-7) developed terminal disease within an average of 19 months. We have since produced an inoculum, No. x124 from pooled brains of US origin sheep scrapie, that results in incubations nearly 3 fold shorter. The present study documents clinicopathological findings and the distribution of abnormal prion proteins (PrP**Sc) by immunohistochemical (IHC) and Western blot (WB) techniques, in tissues of sheep inoculated with No. x124. All inoculated sheep developed clinical disease and were euthanized within an average of 7.7 months post-inoculation (MPI). Sheep that had VV or AV at codon 136 of prion protein (PRNP) gene developed the disease faster and were euthanized at an average of 4.3 and 5.6 MPI, respectively. Also, the inoculum was able to induce disease in a short time (7 MPI) in a sheep that was relatively resistant (QR at codon 171) to scrapie. This indicates that inoculum No. x124 appears to induce scrapie in shorter time than inoculum No. 13-7, especially in sheep homozygous or heterozygous for valine at codon 136.
12/10/76 AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH COUNCIL REPORT OF THE ADVISORY COMMITTE ON SCRAPIE Office Note CHAIRMAN: PROFESSOR PETER WILDY
A The Present Position with respect to Scrapie
A1 The Problem
Scrapie is a natural disease of sheep and goats. It is a slow and inexorably progressive degenerative disorder of the nervous system and it ia fatal. It is enzootic in the United Kingdom but not in all countries.
The field problem has been reviewed by a MAFF working group (ARC 35/77). It is difficult to assess the incidence in Britain for a variety of reasons but the disease causes serious financial loss; it is estimated that it cost Swaledale breeders alone $l.7 M during the five years 1971-1975. A further inestimable loss arises from the closure of certain export markets, in particular those of the United States, to British sheep.
It is clear that scrapie in sheep is important commercially and for that reason alone effective measures to control it should be devised as quickly as possible.
Recently the question has again been brought up as to whether scrapie is transmissible to man. This has followed reports that the disease has been transmitted to primates. One particularly lurid speculation (Gajdusek 1977) conjectures that the agents of scrapie, kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and transmissible encephalopathy of mink are varieties of a single "virus". The U.S. Department of Agriculture concluded that it could "no longer justify or permit scrapie-blood line and scrapie-exposed sheep and goats to be processed for human or animal food at slaughter or rendering plants" (ARC 84/77)" The problem is emphasised by the finding that some strains of scrapie produce lesions identical to the once which characterise the human dementias"
Whether true or not. the hypothesis that these agents might be transmissible to man raises two considerations. First, the safety of laboratory personnel requires prompt attention. Second, action such as the "scorched meat" policy of USDA makes the solution of the acrapie problem urgent if the sheep industry is not to suffer grievously.
Epidemiology of Scrapie in the United States 1977
Like lambs to the slaughter 31 March 2001 by Debora MacKenzie Magazine issue 2284
FOUR years ago, Terry Singeltary watched his mother die horribly from a degenerative brain disease. Doctors told him it was Alzheimer's, but Singeltary was suspicious. The diagnosis didn't fit her violent symptoms, and he demanded an autopsy. It showed she had died of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.
Most doctors believe that sCJD is caused by a prion protein deforming by chance into a killer. But Singeltary thinks otherwise. He is one of a number of campaigners who say that some sCJD, like the variant CJD related to BSE, is caused by eating meat from infected animals. Their suspicions have focused on sheep carrying scrapie, a BSE-like disease that is widespread in flocks across Europe and North America.
Now scientists in France have stumbled across new evidence that adds weight to the campaigners' fears. To their complete surprise, the researchers found that one strain of scrapie causes the same brain damage in ...
Saturday, June 13, 2009
Monitoring the occurrence of emerging forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United States 2003 revisited 2009
SEE THIS DAMNING VIDEO NOW AT THE BOTTOM OF THE BLOG BELOW ;
Terry S. Singeltary Sr. P.O. Box 42 Bacliff, Texas USA 77518